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Title: Framework for modeling high-impact, low-frequency power grid events to support risk-informed decisions

Abstract

Natural and man-made hazardous events resulting in loss of grid infrastructure assets challenge the security and resilience of the electric power grid. However, the planning and allocation of appropriate contingency resources for such events requires an understanding of their likelihood and the extent of their potential impact. Where these events are of low likelihood, a risk-informed perspective on planning can be difficult, as the statistical basis needed to directly estimate the probabilities and consequences of their occurrence does not exist. Because risk-informed decisions rely on such knowledge, a basis for modeling the risk associated with high-impact, low-frequency events (HILFs) is essential. Insights from such a model indicate where resources are most rationally and effectively expended. A risk-informed realization of designing and maintaining a grid resilient to HILFs will demand consideration of a spectrum of hazards/threats to infrastructure integrity, an understanding of their likelihoods of occurrence, treatment of the fragilities of critical assets to the stressors induced by such events, and through modeling grid network topology, the extent of damage associated with these scenarios. The model resulting from integration of these elements will allow sensitivity assessments based on optional risk management strategies, such as alternative pooling, staging and logistic strategies, andmore » emergency contingency planning. This study is focused on the development of an end-to-end HILF risk-assessment framework. Such a framework is intended to provide the conceptual and overarching technical basis for the development of HILF risk models that can inform decision-makers across numerous stakeholder groups in directing resources optimally towards the management of risks to operational continuity.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1290399
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-115402
Journal ID: ISSN 2212-4209; TE1104000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction; Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: C
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Veeramany, Arun, Unwin, Stephen D., Coles, Garill A., Dagle, Jeffery E., Millard, David W., Yao, Juan, Glantz, Cliff S., and Gourisetti, Sri N. G.. Framework for modeling high-impact, low-frequency power grid events to support risk-informed decisions. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.06.008.
Veeramany, Arun, Unwin, Stephen D., Coles, Garill A., Dagle, Jeffery E., Millard, David W., Yao, Juan, Glantz, Cliff S., & Gourisetti, Sri N. G.. Framework for modeling high-impact, low-frequency power grid events to support risk-informed decisions. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.06.008.
Veeramany, Arun, Unwin, Stephen D., Coles, Garill A., Dagle, Jeffery E., Millard, David W., Yao, Juan, Glantz, Cliff S., and Gourisetti, Sri N. G.. 2016. "Framework for modeling high-impact, low-frequency power grid events to support risk-informed decisions". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.06.008.
@article{osti_1290399,
title = {Framework for modeling high-impact, low-frequency power grid events to support risk-informed decisions},
author = {Veeramany, Arun and Unwin, Stephen D. and Coles, Garill A. and Dagle, Jeffery E. and Millard, David W. and Yao, Juan and Glantz, Cliff S. and Gourisetti, Sri N. G.},
abstractNote = {Natural and man-made hazardous events resulting in loss of grid infrastructure assets challenge the security and resilience of the electric power grid. However, the planning and allocation of appropriate contingency resources for such events requires an understanding of their likelihood and the extent of their potential impact. Where these events are of low likelihood, a risk-informed perspective on planning can be difficult, as the statistical basis needed to directly estimate the probabilities and consequences of their occurrence does not exist. Because risk-informed decisions rely on such knowledge, a basis for modeling the risk associated with high-impact, low-frequency events (HILFs) is essential. Insights from such a model indicate where resources are most rationally and effectively expended. A risk-informed realization of designing and maintaining a grid resilient to HILFs will demand consideration of a spectrum of hazards/threats to infrastructure integrity, an understanding of their likelihoods of occurrence, treatment of the fragilities of critical assets to the stressors induced by such events, and through modeling grid network topology, the extent of damage associated with these scenarios. The model resulting from integration of these elements will allow sensitivity assessments based on optional risk management strategies, such as alternative pooling, staging and logistic strategies, and emergency contingency planning. This study is focused on the development of an end-to-end HILF risk-assessment framework. Such a framework is intended to provide the conceptual and overarching technical basis for the development of HILF risk models that can inform decision-makers across numerous stakeholder groups in directing resources optimally towards the management of risks to operational continuity.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.06.008},
journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction},
number = C,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Natural and man-made hazardous events resulting in loss of grid infrastructure assets challenge the electric power grid’s security and resilience. However, the planning and allocation of appropriate contingency resources for such events requires an understanding of their likelihood and the extent of their potential impact. Where these events are of low likelihood, a risk-informed perspective on planning can be problematic as there exists an insufficient statistical basis to directly estimate the probabilities and consequences of their occurrence. Since risk-informed decisions rely on such knowledge, a basis for modeling the risk associated with high-impact low frequency events (HILFs) is essential. Insightsmore » from such a model can inform where resources are most rationally and effectively expended. The present effort is focused on development of a HILF risk assessment framework. Such a framework is intended to provide the conceptual and overarching technical basis for the development of HILF risk models that can inform decision makers across numerous stakeholder sectors. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2014 Standard TPL-001-4 considers severe events for transmission reliability planning, but does not address events of such severity that they have the potential to fail a substantial fraction of grid assets over a region, such as geomagnetic disturbances (GMD), extreme seismic events, and coordinated cyber-physical attacks. These are beyond current planning guidelines. As noted, the risks associated with such events cannot be statistically estimated based on historic experience; however, there does exist a stable of risk modeling techniques for rare events that have proven of value across a wide range of engineering application domains. There is an active and growing interest in evaluating the value of risk management techniques in the State transmission planning and emergency response communities, some of this interest in the context of grid modernization activities. The availability of a grid HILF risk model, integrated across multi-hazard domains which, when interrogated, can support transparent, defensible and effective decisions, is an attractive prospect among these communities. In this report, we document an integrated HILF risk framework intended to inform the development of risk models. These models would be based on the systematic and comprehensive (to within scope) characterization of hazards to the level of detail required for modeling risk, identification of the stressors associated with the hazards (i.e., the means of impacting grid and supporting infrastructure), characterization of the vulnerability of assets to these stressors and the probabilities of asset compromise, the grid’s dynamic response to the asset failures, and assessment of subsequent severities of consequence with respect to selected impact metrics, such as power outage duration and geographic reach. Specifically, the current framework is being developed to;1. Provide the conceptual and overarching technical paradigms for the development of risk models; 2. Identify the classes of models required to implement the framework - providing examples of existing models, and also identifying where modeling gaps exist; 3. Identify the types of data required, addressing circumstances under which data are sparse and the formal elicitation of informed judgment might be required; and 4. Identify means by which the resultant risk models might be interrogated to form the necessary basis for risk management.« less
  • The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a risk framework for modeling high-impact, low-frequency power grid events to support risk-informed decisions. In this paper, we briefly recap the framework and demonstrate its implementation for seismic and geomagnetic hazards using a benchmark reliability test system. We describe integration of a collection of models implemented to perform hazard analysis, fragility evaluation, consequence estimation, and postevent restoration. We demonstrate the value of the framework as a multihazard power grid risk assessment and management tool. As a result, the research will benefit transmission planners and emergency planners by improving their ability to maintain a resilientmore » grid infrastructure against impacts from major events.« less
  • The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) has developed a suite of tools to assess and manage risk at CO2 sequestration sites (1). The NRAP tool suite includes the Aquifer Impact Model (AIM), based on reduced order models developed using site-specific data from two aquifers (alluvium and carbonate). The models accept aquifer parameters as a range of variable inputs so they may have more broad applicability. Guidelines have been developed for determining the aquifer types for which the ROMs should be applicable. This paper considers the applicability of the aquifer models in AIM to predicting the impact of CO2 or Brinemore » leakage were it to occur at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP). Based on the results of the sensitivity analysis, the hydraulic parameters and leakage source term magnitude are more sensitive than clay fraction or cation exchange capacity. Sand permeability was the only hydraulic parameter measured at the IBDP site. More information on the other hydraulic parameters, such as sand fraction and sand/clay correlation lengths, could reduce uncertainty in risk estimates. Some non-adjustable parameters, such as the initial pH and TDS and the pH no-impact threshold, are significantly different for the ROM than for the observations at the IBDP site. The reduced order model could be made more useful to a wider range of sites if the initial conditions and no-impact threshold values were adjustable parameters.« less
  • In this paper, system component reinforcements are analyzed from the perspective of their impact in increasing the flexibility in system design. The proposed framework integrates a fuzzy optimal power flow model through which one can derive, as a function of load uncertainties, possibility distributions for generation, power flows and power not supplied. Exposure and robustness indices, based on risk analysis concepts, are defined. These indices can be used to rank the expansion alternatives, giving the planner insight to system behavior in the face of adverse futures. Their use in conjunction with investment assessments is proposed as a necessary step inmore » a decision making methodology.« less