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Title: The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN): An instrument to investigate ice nucleation

Abstract

The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN) is a commercially available ice nucleating particle (INP) counter manufactured by Droplet Measurement Technologies in Boulder, CO. The SPIN is a continuous flow diffusion chamber with parallel plate geometry based on the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber and the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber. This study presents a standard description for using the SPIN instrument and also highlights methods to analyze measurements in more advanced ways. It characterizes and describes the behavior of the SPIN chamber, reports data from laboratory measurements, and quantifies uncertainties associated with the measurements. Experiments with ammonium sulfate are used to investigate homogeneous freezing of deliquesced haze droplets and droplet breakthrough. Experiments with kaolinite, NX illite, and silver iodide are used to investigate heterogeneous ice nucleation. SPIN nucleation results are compared to those from the literature. A machine learning approach for analyzing depolarization data from the SPIN optical particle counter is also presented (as an advanced use). Altogether, we report that the SPIN is able to reproduce previous INP counter measurements.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [1];  [1];  [6];  [6];  [2];  [7];  [8];  [8];  [9];  [10] more »;  [2];  [1] « less
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  2. Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig (Germany)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  4. Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)
  5. Univ. of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)
  6. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  7. Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)
  8. Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)
  9. V-ZUG AG, Zurich (Switzerland)
  10. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1290381
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-119306
Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548; KP1704020
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online); Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Garimella, Sarvesh, Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring, Ignatius, Karolina, Welti, Andre, Voigtlander, Jens, Kulkarni, Gourihar R., Sagan, Frank, Kok, Gregory Lee, Dorsey, James, Nichman, Leonid, Rothenberg, Daniel Alexander, Rosch, Michael, Kirchgäßner, Amelie Catharina Ruth, Ladkin, Russell, Wex, Heike, Wilson, Theodore W., Ladino, Luis Antonio, Abbatt, Jon P. D., Stetzer, Olaf, Lohmann, Ulrike, Stratmann, Frank, and Cziczo, Daniel James. The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN): An instrument to investigate ice nucleation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.5194/amt-9-2781-2016.
Garimella, Sarvesh, Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring, Ignatius, Karolina, Welti, Andre, Voigtlander, Jens, Kulkarni, Gourihar R., Sagan, Frank, Kok, Gregory Lee, Dorsey, James, Nichman, Leonid, Rothenberg, Daniel Alexander, Rosch, Michael, Kirchgäßner, Amelie Catharina Ruth, Ladkin, Russell, Wex, Heike, Wilson, Theodore W., Ladino, Luis Antonio, Abbatt, Jon P. D., Stetzer, Olaf, Lohmann, Ulrike, Stratmann, Frank, & Cziczo, Daniel James. The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN): An instrument to investigate ice nucleation. United States. doi:10.5194/amt-9-2781-2016.
Garimella, Sarvesh, Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring, Ignatius, Karolina, Welti, Andre, Voigtlander, Jens, Kulkarni, Gourihar R., Sagan, Frank, Kok, Gregory Lee, Dorsey, James, Nichman, Leonid, Rothenberg, Daniel Alexander, Rosch, Michael, Kirchgäßner, Amelie Catharina Ruth, Ladkin, Russell, Wex, Heike, Wilson, Theodore W., Ladino, Luis Antonio, Abbatt, Jon P. D., Stetzer, Olaf, Lohmann, Ulrike, Stratmann, Frank, and Cziczo, Daniel James. Wed . "The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN): An instrument to investigate ice nucleation". United States. doi:10.5194/amt-9-2781-2016. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1290381.
@article{osti_1290381,
title = {The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN): An instrument to investigate ice nucleation},
author = {Garimella, Sarvesh and Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring and Ignatius, Karolina and Welti, Andre and Voigtlander, Jens and Kulkarni, Gourihar R. and Sagan, Frank and Kok, Gregory Lee and Dorsey, James and Nichman, Leonid and Rothenberg, Daniel Alexander and Rosch, Michael and Kirchgäßner, Amelie Catharina Ruth and Ladkin, Russell and Wex, Heike and Wilson, Theodore W. and Ladino, Luis Antonio and Abbatt, Jon P. D. and Stetzer, Olaf and Lohmann, Ulrike and Stratmann, Frank and Cziczo, Daniel James},
abstractNote = {The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN) is a commercially available ice nucleating particle (INP) counter manufactured by Droplet Measurement Technologies in Boulder, CO. The SPIN is a continuous flow diffusion chamber with parallel plate geometry based on the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber and the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber. This study presents a standard description for using the SPIN instrument and also highlights methods to analyze measurements in more advanced ways. It characterizes and describes the behavior of the SPIN chamber, reports data from laboratory measurements, and quantifies uncertainties associated with the measurements. Experiments with ammonium sulfate are used to investigate homogeneous freezing of deliquesced haze droplets and droplet breakthrough. Experiments with kaolinite, NX illite, and silver iodide are used to investigate heterogeneous ice nucleation. SPIN nucleation results are compared to those from the literature. A machine learning approach for analyzing depolarization data from the SPIN optical particle counter is also presented (as an advanced use). Altogether, we report that the SPIN is able to reproduce previous INP counter measurements.},
doi = {10.5194/amt-9-2781-2016},
journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)},
number = 7,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jul 06 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jul 06 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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  • A new Thermal Gradient ice nucleation Diffusion Chamber (TGDC) capable of investigating ice nucleation efficiency of atmospherically important aerosols, termed Ice Nuclei (IN), has been designed, constructed and validated. The TGDC can produce a range of supersaturations with respect to ice (SSi) over the temperature range of -10 to -34°C for sufficiently long time needed to observe the nucleation by the particles. The aerosol particles under examination were supported on a Teflon substrate and nucleation events observed using digital photography. The TGDC consists of two ice coated plates to which a thermal gradient is applied to produce the range ofmore » SSi. The ability to understand time-related ice nucleation event information and to perform experiments at different temperatures and SSi conditions for different IN without changing the thermal gradient makes the TGDC a unique ice nucleation chamber. The SSi and temperature conditions of the experimental system are validated by observing (NH4)2SO4 deliquescence and the results are in good agreement with the literature data. The design details of the TGDC along with the experimental set-up, the experimental procedure and its usefulness in understanding ice nucleation processes of dust particles are presented. The ice nucleation investigations using different particles are needed to better quantify the role of ice formation in the atmosphere.« less
  • Ice formation is one of the most common and important processes on earth and almost always occurs at the surface of a material. A basic understanding of how the physicochemical properties of a material’s surface affect its ability to form ice has remained elusive. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to directly probe heterogeneous ice nucleation at a hexagonal surface of a nanoparticle of varying hydrophilicity. Surprisingly, we find that structurally identical surfaces can both inhibit and promote ice formation and analogous to a chemical catalyst, it is found that an optimal interaction between the surface and the water existsmore » for promoting ice nucleation.We use our microscopic understanding of the mechanism to design a modified surface in silico with enhanced ice nucleating ability. C 2015 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.« less
  • Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of icemore » supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O 3, SO 4 2-, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO 2, and SO 2 over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the dominant role of dust is CCN or IN. These results indicate the importance of the heterogeneous ice nucleation treatments and dust emissions in accurately simulating regional climate and air quality.« less
  • Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of icemore » supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM 2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the dominant role of dust is CCN or IN. These results indicate the importance of the heterogeneous ice nucleation treatments and dust emissions in accurately simulating regional climate and air quality.« less