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Title: Mass Transport of Condensed Species in Aerodynamic Fallout Glass from a Near-Surface Nuclear Test

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Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
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Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Weisz, D G. Mass Transport of Condensed Species in Aerodynamic Fallout Glass from a Near-Surface Nuclear Test. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1289373.
Weisz, D G. Mass Transport of Condensed Species in Aerodynamic Fallout Glass from a Near-Surface Nuclear Test. United States. doi:10.2172/1289373.
Weisz, D G. 2016. "Mass Transport of Condensed Species in Aerodynamic Fallout Glass from a Near-Surface Nuclear Test". United States. doi:10.2172/1289373.
title = {Mass Transport of Condensed Species in Aerodynamic Fallout Glass from a Near-Surface Nuclear Test},
author = {Weisz, D G},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.2172/1289373},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7

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  • The /sup 89/Sr//sup 90/Sr ratio variation in rain and snow samples were studied at Fayetteville, Arkansas, between 21 September 1979, and 6 August 1981. The presence of fresh nuclear debris was detected following the 25th Chinese test of 16 October 1980. A tropospheric cycling effect was clearly indicated in the radiostrontium data following this test. While the fallout of uranium from the burn-up of the Soviet satellite Cosmos-954 was not accompanied by fission products, concentrations of /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr in rain and snow at Fayetteville, Arkansas, showed a spectacular increase during the spring months of 1981 due tomore » the 25th Chinese nuclear test explosion of 16 October 1980. Nuclear debris injected into the atmosphere by the Three-Mile-Island accident of April 1979 was not detected in rain samples collected at Fayeteville, Arkansas. This seems to indicate that the atmospheric injection of fission products from this nuclear accident was limited primarily to gaseous fission products.« less
  • Atmospheric-test fallout data were used to determine admissable-dust particle-size distributions for nuclear-winter studies. The research was originally motivated by extreme differences noted in the magnitude and longevity of dust effects predicted by particle-size distributions routinely used in fallout predictions versus those used for nuclear-winter studies. Three different sets of historical data were analyzed: (1) stratospheric burden of strontium-90 and tungsten-185, 1954-1967 (92 contributing events); (2) continental US strontium-90 fallout through 1958 (75 contributing events); (3) local fallout from selected Nevada tests (16 events). The contribution of dust to possible long-term climate effects following a nuclear exchange depends strongly on themore » particle-size distribution. The distribution affects both the atmospheric residence time and optical depth. One-dimensional models of stratospheric/tropospheric fallout removal were developed and used to identify optimum particle distributions. Results indicate that particle distributions that properly predict bulk stratospheric activity transfer tend to be somewhat smaller than number size distributions used in initial nuclear winter studies. In addition, both /sup 90/Sr and /sup 185/W fallout behavior is better predicted by the log normal distribution function than the prevalent power-law hybrid function.« less
  • It has been shown that the incorporation of lead metal into the corrosion environment reduces the leaching rate of nuclear waste glasses. The present study evaluated the effects of lead metal, oxides, alloys, glasses and soluble species on the corrosion rate of a waste glass. The inherent durability of nuclear waste glasses comes from the about due to the insoluble surface film developed during corrosion. This surface film, enriched with iron, aluminum and calcium acts as a diffusion barrier to further corrosion. Except for PbO/sub 2/, all lead species inhibited glass corrosion due to the formation of a surface filmmore » enriched in lead. No corroded glass layer was observed below the lead surface layer. Also, no glass corrosion products were found on the lead surface, except for small amounts of silicon. The transport and deposition of lead on the glass surface appears to be the key factors in preventing glass corrosion. At high glass surface area to volume ratios, the glass corroded considerably at short times since the dissolved lead source could not coat the entire glass surface rapidly enough to prevent continued corrosion. Also, experimental solution values did not agree with thermodynamics model predictions. This suggests that kinetic factors, namely diffusion barriers, are controlling the glass corrosion rate.« less
  • The aim of this research is to formulate a mechanistic glass dissolution model which is consistent with experimental evidence that permits one to use experimental data to predict the nuclide release rate in a geologic media. The structure of the glasses for which the dissolution experiments are reviewed indicate that the silicate glasses are composed of two types of interconnected tetrahedron. The first type (non-ionic unit) has a structure which is identical to that of vitreous silica, i.e., it contains bridging oxygens only, while the second type (ionic unit) possesses one or more cation as part of the tetrahedron structure.more » A glass dissolution model is proposed which is based on ion-exchange and network dissolution. The model is applied to soxhlet, static, and semi-static experiments. The experimental data is used to predict glass dissolution in a geological model. As a demonstration the release rate of glass components from PNL-76-68 glass emplaced in a geologic repository, in absence of groundwater convection, is obtained. Numerical results indicate that after one week concentration of silica at the rock/glass interface in 98 % of the saturation concentration. The effects of a fracture in a porous rock on the mass transport from a waste cylinder is analyzed. The steady-state results are obtained by analytical means. An approximation to the exact governing equation is obtained by assuming a uniform concentration in the axial direction (parallel to the cylinder axis). The time-dependent surface mass flux of a stable nuclide from the waste into the fissure as well as the surface mass flux of a radionuclide from the cylinder into the fissure is obtained.« less