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Title: Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas

Abstract

In magnetized plasma physics, almost all developed analytic theories assume a Maxwellian distribution function (MDF) and in some cases small deviations are described using the perturbation theory. The deviations with respect to the Maxwellian equilibrium, called kinetic effects, are required to be taken into account especially for fusion reactor plasmas. Generally, because the perturbation theory is not consistent with observed steady-state non-Maxwellians, these kinetic effects are numerically evaluated by very central processing unit (CPU)-expensive codes, avoiding the analytic complexity of velocity phase space integrals. We develop here a new method based on analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions constructed from non-orthogonal basis sets in order to (i) use as few parameters as possible, (ii) increase the efficiency to model numerical and experimental non-Maxwellians, (iii) help to understand unsolved problems such as diagnostics discrepancies from the physical interpretation of the parameters, and (iv) obtain analytic corrections due to kinetic effects given by a small number of terms and removing the numerical error of the evaluation of velocity phase space integrals. This work does not attempt to derive new physical effects even if it could be possible to discover one from the better understandings of some unsolved problems, but here we focus on themore » analytic prediction of kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellians. As applications, examples of analytic kinetic corrections are shown for the secondary electron emission, the Langmuir probe characteristic curve, and the entropy. This is done by using three analytic representations of the distribution function: the Kappa distribution function, the bi-modal or a new interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function (INMDF). The existence of INMDFs is proved by new understandings of the experimental discrepancy of the measured electron temperature between two diagnostics in JET. As main results, it is shown that (i) the empirical formula for the secondary electron emission is not consistent with a MDF due to the presence of super-thermal particles, (ii) the super-thermal particles can replace a diffusion parameter in the Langmuir probe current formula, and (iii) the entropy can explicitly decrease in presence of sources only for the introduced INMDF without violating the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the first order entropy of an infinite number of super-thermal tails stays the same as the entropy of a MDF. In conclusion, the latter demystifies the Maxwell's demon by statistically describing non-isolated systems.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1289360
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-686219
Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; entropy; particle distribution functions; Maxwell equations; probe plasma diagnostics; cumulative distribution functions

Citation Formats

Izacard, Olivier. Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4960123.
Izacard, Olivier. Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960123.
Izacard, Olivier. 2016. "Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960123. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1289360.
@article{osti_1289360,
title = {Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas},
author = {Izacard, Olivier},
abstractNote = {In magnetized plasma physics, almost all developed analytic theories assume a Maxwellian distribution function (MDF) and in some cases small deviations are described using the perturbation theory. The deviations with respect to the Maxwellian equilibrium, called kinetic effects, are required to be taken into account especially for fusion reactor plasmas. Generally, because the perturbation theory is not consistent with observed steady-state non-Maxwellians, these kinetic effects are numerically evaluated by very central processing unit (CPU)-expensive codes, avoiding the analytic complexity of velocity phase space integrals. We develop here a new method based on analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions constructed from non-orthogonal basis sets in order to (i) use as few parameters as possible, (ii) increase the efficiency to model numerical and experimental non-Maxwellians, (iii) help to understand unsolved problems such as diagnostics discrepancies from the physical interpretation of the parameters, and (iv) obtain analytic corrections due to kinetic effects given by a small number of terms and removing the numerical error of the evaluation of velocity phase space integrals. This work does not attempt to derive new physical effects even if it could be possible to discover one from the better understandings of some unsolved problems, but here we focus on the analytic prediction of kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellians. As applications, examples of analytic kinetic corrections are shown for the secondary electron emission, the Langmuir probe characteristic curve, and the entropy. This is done by using three analytic representations of the distribution function: the Kappa distribution function, the bi-modal or a new interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function (INMDF). The existence of INMDFs is proved by new understandings of the experimental discrepancy of the measured electron temperature between two diagnostics in JET. As main results, it is shown that (i) the empirical formula for the secondary electron emission is not consistent with a MDF due to the presence of super-thermal particles, (ii) the super-thermal particles can replace a diffusion parameter in the Langmuir probe current formula, and (iii) the entropy can explicitly decrease in presence of sources only for the introduced INMDF without violating the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the first order entropy of an infinite number of super-thermal tails stays the same as the entropy of a MDF. In conclusion, the latter demystifies the Maxwell's demon by statistically describing non-isolated systems.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4960123},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 8,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

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  • In magnetized plasma physics, almost all developed analytic theories assume a Maxwellian distribution function (MDF) and in some cases small deviations are described using the perturbation theory. The deviations with respect to the Maxwellian equilibrium, called kinetic effects, are required to be taken into account especially for fusion reactor plasmas. Generally, because the perturbation theory is not consistent with observed steady-state non-Maxwellians, these kinetic effects are numerically evaluated by very central processing unit (CPU)-expensive codes, avoiding the analytic complexity of velocity phase space integrals. We develop here a new method based on analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions constructed from non-orthogonal basismore » sets in order to (i) use as few parameters as possible, (ii) increase the efficiency to model numerical and experimental non-Maxwellians, (iii) help to understand unsolved problems such as diagnostics discrepancies from the physical interpretation of the parameters, and (iv) obtain analytic corrections due to kinetic effects given by a small number of terms and removing the numerical error of the evaluation of velocity phase space integrals. This work does not attempt to derive new physical effects even if it could be possible to discover one from the better understandings of some unsolved problems, but here we focus on the analytic prediction of kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellians. As applications, examples of analytic kinetic corrections are shown for the secondary electron emission, the Langmuir probe characteristic curve, and the entropy. This is done by using three analytic representations of the distribution function: the Kappa distribution function, the bi-modal or a new interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function (INMDF). The existence of INMDFs is proved by new understandings of the experimental discrepancy of the measured electron temperature between two diagnostics in JET. As main results, it is shown that (i) the empirical formula for the secondary electron emission is not consistent with a MDF due to the presence of super-thermal particles, (ii) the super-thermal particles can replace a diffusion parameter in the Langmuir probe current formula, and (iii) the entropy can explicitly decrease in presence of sources only for the introduced INMDF without violating the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the first order entropy of an infinite number of super-thermal tails stays the same as the entropy of a MDF. The latter demystifies the Maxwell's demon by statistically describing non-isolated systems.« less
  • We use a kinetic treatment to study the linear transverse dispersion relation for a magnetized isotropic relativistic electron-positron plasma with finite relativistic temperature. The explicit linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves propagating along a constant background magnetic field is presented, including an analytical continuation to the whole complex frequency plane for the case of Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution functions. This dispersion relation is studied numerically for various temperatures. For left-handed solutions, the system presents two branches, the electromagnetic ordinary mode and the Alfvén mode. In the low frequency regime, the Alfvén branch has two dispersive zones, the normal zone (where ∂ω/∂k > 0)more » and an anomalous zone (where ∂ω/∂k < 0). We find that in the anomalous zone of the Alfvén branch, the electromagnetic waves are damped, and there is a maximum wave number for which the Alfvén branch is suppressed. We also study the dependence of the Alfvén velocity and effective plasma frequency with the temperature. We complemented the analytical and numerical approaches with relativistic full particle simulations, which consistently agree with the analytical results.« less
  • We formulate and solve analytically a kinetic equation describing the balance between elastic and inelastic collisions for the free electron energy distribution function in a steady-state hydrogen plasma. The solutions obtained show that the high-energy tail of the distribution (epsilon> or approx. =9 eV) can deviate from a Maxwellian for ionization fractions n/sub e//n/sub h/9 or approx. =0.1, and that such deviations can lead to a significant changes in the collisional excitation and ionization rates of ground-state hydrogen atoms. Formulas for these rates are obtained which explicitly display their dependence on the hydrogen departure coefficients. Previous treatments of the problemmore » are discussed in detail.« less