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Title: Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene)–polyacrylamide nanocomposite films

Abstract

Polymer nanocomposite films are of great interest due to their enhanced properties over base polymers. By incorporating 2D titanium carbide a representative of a new family of 2D materials, MXenes, as nanofillers into a water soluble polyacrylamide (PAM) matrix, the resulting films benefit from the flexibility, robustness, and processability of PAM, as well as the conductivity and mechanical properties of MXene fillers. We report on manufacturing and characterization of MXene-PAM nanocomposite films. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) intercalation in-between the Ti 3C 2-based MXene layers led to full delamination of the MXene layers and hence a uniform dispersion of hydrophilic MXene nanosheets in aqueous PAM solutions was achieved. Moreover, the polymer composite solutions of up to 75 wt.% MXene loading were sonicated and cast onto large Teflon trays and dried at room temperature to produce shiny black films. The observation of reduced 0002 peaks of Ti 3C 2T x phase in X-ray diffraction patterns and TEM images indicate the presence of well dispersed nanoflakes. The as-prepared composite films are flexible and the conductivity was increased significantly to 3 x 10 -3 S cm -1 for 6 wt. % MXene-PAM films. With high MXene loading, some non-uniformity between the top and bottom surfaces wasmore » observed. This could be due to the segregation of MXene layers in composite films during drying. Finally, the power law dependence of conductivity above the percolation threshold is presented through detailed conductivity measurements.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1286978
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
RSC Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 76; Journal ID: ISSN 2046-2069
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Naguib, Michael, Saito, Tomonori, Lai, Sophia, Rager, Matthew S., Aytug, Tolga, Parans Paranthaman, M., Zhao, Meng-Qiang, and Gogotsi, Yury. Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene)–polyacrylamide nanocomposite films. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1039/C6RA10384G.
Naguib, Michael, Saito, Tomonori, Lai, Sophia, Rager, Matthew S., Aytug, Tolga, Parans Paranthaman, M., Zhao, Meng-Qiang, & Gogotsi, Yury. Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene)–polyacrylamide nanocomposite films. United States. doi:10.1039/C6RA10384G.
Naguib, Michael, Saito, Tomonori, Lai, Sophia, Rager, Matthew S., Aytug, Tolga, Parans Paranthaman, M., Zhao, Meng-Qiang, and Gogotsi, Yury. 2016. "Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene)–polyacrylamide nanocomposite films". United States. doi:10.1039/C6RA10384G. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1286978.
@article{osti_1286978,
title = {Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene)–polyacrylamide nanocomposite films},
author = {Naguib, Michael and Saito, Tomonori and Lai, Sophia and Rager, Matthew S. and Aytug, Tolga and Parans Paranthaman, M. and Zhao, Meng-Qiang and Gogotsi, Yury},
abstractNote = {Polymer nanocomposite films are of great interest due to their enhanced properties over base polymers. By incorporating 2D titanium carbide a representative of a new family of 2D materials, MXenes, as nanofillers into a water soluble polyacrylamide (PAM) matrix, the resulting films benefit from the flexibility, robustness, and processability of PAM, as well as the conductivity and mechanical properties of MXene fillers. We report on manufacturing and characterization of MXene-PAM nanocomposite films. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) intercalation in-between the Ti3C2-based MXene layers led to full delamination of the MXene layers and hence a uniform dispersion of hydrophilic MXene nanosheets in aqueous PAM solutions was achieved. Moreover, the polymer composite solutions of up to 75 wt.% MXene loading were sonicated and cast onto large Teflon trays and dried at room temperature to produce shiny black films. The observation of reduced 0002 peaks of Ti3C2Tx phase in X-ray diffraction patterns and TEM images indicate the presence of well dispersed nanoflakes. The as-prepared composite films are flexible and the conductivity was increased significantly to 3 x 10-3 S cm-1 for 6 wt. % MXene-PAM films. With high MXene loading, some non-uniformity between the top and bottom surfaces was observed. This could be due to the segregation of MXene layers in composite films during drying. Finally, the power law dependence of conductivity above the percolation threshold is presented through detailed conductivity measurements.},
doi = {10.1039/C6RA10384G},
journal = {RSC Advances},
number = 76,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Journal Article:
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  • Herein we report on the synthesis and characterization of MXene–polyacrylamide (PAM) nanocomposite films. The as-prepared composites are flexible and the conductivity was increased significantly to 3.3 × 10 -2S m -1with only 6 wt% MXene loading.
  • A nanocomposite of polyacrylamide, a water soluble polymer, and nanocrystalline CdS has been prepared using a chemical route. Transmission electron microscope observation shows that the particles are attached via the polymer coils. The reduction of viscosity for the composite, despite the increase in concentration, indicates a reduction of interchain entanglement between the composite coils. Ultrathin films were prepared from the nanocomposite and pure polyacrylamide using spin coating on a Si(100) substrate in the speed range of 500 to 5000 rpm. X-ray reflectivity studies of the pure polymer and composite films were carried out in vacuum. The thickness of the compositemore » films varies nonmonotonically with spinning speed and is found to lie in discrete 'bands' of thickness separated by 'forbidden regions'. The power law behavior of the thickness with the spinning speed was also found to be different for the composite films in comparison to the polymer ones. A model has been proposed in terms of discrete numbers of layers composed of CdS-attached polymer coils to explain the phenomena.« less
  • MXenes, a new family of 2D materials, combine hydrophilic surfaces with metallic conductivity. Delamination of MXene produces single-layer nanosheets with thickness of about a nanometer and lateral size of the order of micrometers. The high aspect ratio of delaminated MXene renders it promising nanofiller in multifunctional polymer nanocomposites. In this study, Ti 3C 2T x MXene was mixed with either a charged polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) or an electrically neutral polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to produce Ti 3C 2T x/polymer composites. The as-fabricated composites are flexible and have electrical conductivities as high as 2.2 × 10 4 S/m in the case ofmore » the Ti 3C 2T x/PVA composite film and 2.4 × 10 5 S/m for pure Ti 3C 2T x films. The tensile strength of the Ti 3C 2T x/PVA composites was significantly enhanced compared with pure Ti 3C 2T x or PVA films. The intercalation and confinement of the polymer between the MXene flakes not only increased flexibility but also enhanced cationic intercalation, offering an impressive volumetric capacitance of ~530 F/cm 3 for MXene/PVA-KOH composite film at 2 mV/s. Finally, to our knowledge, this study is a first, but crucial, step in exploring the potential of using MXenes in polymer-based multifunctional nanocomposites for a host of applications, such as structural components, energy storage devices, wearable electronics, electrochemical actuators, and radiofrequency shielding, to name a few.« less