skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: EMAPS: An Efficient Multiscale Approach to Plasma Systems with Non-MHD Scale Effects

Abstract

Global interactions of energetic ions with magnetoplasmas and neutral gases lie at the core of many space and laboratory plasma phenomena ranging from solar wind entry into and transport within planetary magnetospheres and exospheres to fast-ion driven instabilities in fusion devices to astrophysics-in-lab experiments. The ability of computational models to properly account for physical effects that underlie such interactions, namely ion kinetic, ion cyclotron, Hall, collisional and ionization processes is important for the success and planning of experimental research in plasma physics. Understanding the physics of energetic ions, in particular their nonlinear resonance interactions with Alfvén waves, is central to improving the heating performance of magnetically confined plasmas for future energy generation. Fluid models are not adequate for high-beta plasmas as they cannot fully capture ion kinetic and cyclotron physics (e.g., ion behavior in the presence of magnetic nulls, shock structures, plasma interpenetration, etc.). Recent results from global reconnection simulations show that even in a MHD-like regime there may be significant differences between kinetic and MHD simulations. Therefore, kinetic modeling becomes essential for meeting modern day challenges in plasma physics. The hybrid approximation is an intermediate approximation between the fluid and fully kinetic approximations. It eliminates light waves, removes themore » electron inertial temporal and spatial scales from the problem and enables full-orbit ion kinetics. As a result, hybrid codes have become effective tools for exploring ion-scale driven phenomena associated with ion beams, shocks, reconnection and turbulence that control the large-scale behavior of laboratory and space magnetoplasmas. A number of numerical issues, however, make three-dimensional (3D) large-scale hybrid simulations of inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas prohibitively expensive or even impossible. To resolve these difficulties we have developed a novel Event-driven Multiscale Asynchronous Parallel Simulation (EMAPS) technology that replaces time stepping with self-adaptive update events. Local calculations are carried out only on an “as needed basis”. EMAPS (i) guarantees accurate and stable processing of physical variables in time accurate simulations, and (ii) eliminates unnecessary computation. Applying EMAPS to the hybrid model has resulted in the development of a unique parallel code, dimension-independent (compile-time-configurable) HYPERS (Hybrid Parallel Event-Resolved Simulator) that scales to hundreds of thousands of parallel processors. HYPERS advances electromagnetic fields and particles asynchronously on time scales determined by local physical laws and mesh properties. To achieve high computational accuracy in complex device geometries, HYPERS employs high-fidelity Cartesian grids with masked conductive cells. The HYPERS model includes multiple ion species, energy and momentum conserving ion-ion collisions, and provides a number of approximations for plasma resistivity and vacuum regions. Both local and periodic boundary conditions are allowed. The HYPERS solver preserves zero divergence of magnetic field. The project has demonstrated HYPERS capabilities on a number of applications of interest to fusion and astrophysical plasma physics applications listed below. 1. Theta-pinch formation of FRCs The formation, spontaneous spin-up, and stability of theta-pinch formed field-reversed configurations have been studied self-consistently in 3D. The end-to-end hybrid simulations reveal poloidal profiles of implosion-driven fast toroidal plasma rotation and demonstrate three discharge regimes as a function of experimental parameters: the decaying stable configuration, the tilt unstable configuration, and the nonlinear evolution of a fast growing tearing mode. 2. FRC collisions with magnetic mirrors Interactions of fast plasma streams and objects with magnetic obstacles (dipoles, mirrors, etc) lie at the core of many space and laboratory plasma phenomena ranging from magnetoshells and solar wind interactions with planetary magnetospheres to compact fusion plasmas. HYPERS simulations are compared with data from the MSX experiment (LANL) that focuses on the physics of magnetized collisionless shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of FRC plasmoids against a strong magnetic mirrors and flux-conserving boundaries. 3. Exploding magnetoplasmas Results from hybrid simulations of two experiments at the LAPD and Nevada Terawatt Facility are discussed where short-pulse lasers are used to ablate solid targets to produce plasmas that expand across external magnetic fields. The first simulation recreates flutelike density striations observed at the leading edge of a carbon plasma and predicts an early destruction of the magnetic cavity in agreement with experimental evidence. In the second simulation a polyethylene target is ablated into a mixture of protons and carbon ions. A mechanism is demonstrated that allows protons to penetrate the magnetic field in the form of a collimated flow. The results are compared to experimental data and single-fluid MHD simulations. The EMAPS framework has the potential for wide application in many other engineering and scientific fields, such as climate models, biological systems, electronic devices, seismic events, oil reservation simulators that all involve advancing solutions of partial differential equations in time where the rate of activity can be adapted widely over the spatial domain depending on locally space/time phenomena (“events”).« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Trinum Research, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Trinum Research, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
OSTI Identifier:
1286088
Report Number(s):
DOE-TRINUM-12345
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0012345
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; computational; plasma; multiscale; fusion; HEDP; DES; event-driven; time integration

Citation Formats

Omelchenko, Yuri A. EMAPS: An Efficient Multiscale Approach to Plasma Systems with Non-MHD Scale Effects. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1286088.
Omelchenko, Yuri A. EMAPS: An Efficient Multiscale Approach to Plasma Systems with Non-MHD Scale Effects. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1286088
Omelchenko, Yuri A. Mon . "EMAPS: An Efficient Multiscale Approach to Plasma Systems with Non-MHD Scale Effects". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1286088. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1286088.
@article{osti_1286088,
title = {EMAPS: An Efficient Multiscale Approach to Plasma Systems with Non-MHD Scale Effects},
author = {Omelchenko, Yuri A.},
abstractNote = {Global interactions of energetic ions with magnetoplasmas and neutral gases lie at the core of many space and laboratory plasma phenomena ranging from solar wind entry into and transport within planetary magnetospheres and exospheres to fast-ion driven instabilities in fusion devices to astrophysics-in-lab experiments. The ability of computational models to properly account for physical effects that underlie such interactions, namely ion kinetic, ion cyclotron, Hall, collisional and ionization processes is important for the success and planning of experimental research in plasma physics. Understanding the physics of energetic ions, in particular their nonlinear resonance interactions with Alfvén waves, is central to improving the heating performance of magnetically confined plasmas for future energy generation. Fluid models are not adequate for high-beta plasmas as they cannot fully capture ion kinetic and cyclotron physics (e.g., ion behavior in the presence of magnetic nulls, shock structures, plasma interpenetration, etc.). Recent results from global reconnection simulations show that even in a MHD-like regime there may be significant differences between kinetic and MHD simulations. Therefore, kinetic modeling becomes essential for meeting modern day challenges in plasma physics. The hybrid approximation is an intermediate approximation between the fluid and fully kinetic approximations. It eliminates light waves, removes the electron inertial temporal and spatial scales from the problem and enables full-orbit ion kinetics. As a result, hybrid codes have become effective tools for exploring ion-scale driven phenomena associated with ion beams, shocks, reconnection and turbulence that control the large-scale behavior of laboratory and space magnetoplasmas. A number of numerical issues, however, make three-dimensional (3D) large-scale hybrid simulations of inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas prohibitively expensive or even impossible. To resolve these difficulties we have developed a novel Event-driven Multiscale Asynchronous Parallel Simulation (EMAPS) technology that replaces time stepping with self-adaptive update events. Local calculations are carried out only on an “as needed basis”. EMAPS (i) guarantees accurate and stable processing of physical variables in time accurate simulations, and (ii) eliminates unnecessary computation. Applying EMAPS to the hybrid model has resulted in the development of a unique parallel code, dimension-independent (compile-time-configurable) HYPERS (Hybrid Parallel Event-Resolved Simulator) that scales to hundreds of thousands of parallel processors. HYPERS advances electromagnetic fields and particles asynchronously on time scales determined by local physical laws and mesh properties. To achieve high computational accuracy in complex device geometries, HYPERS employs high-fidelity Cartesian grids with masked conductive cells. The HYPERS model includes multiple ion species, energy and momentum conserving ion-ion collisions, and provides a number of approximations for plasma resistivity and vacuum regions. Both local and periodic boundary conditions are allowed. The HYPERS solver preserves zero divergence of magnetic field. The project has demonstrated HYPERS capabilities on a number of applications of interest to fusion and astrophysical plasma physics applications listed below. 1. Theta-pinch formation of FRCs The formation, spontaneous spin-up, and stability of theta-pinch formed field-reversed configurations have been studied self-consistently in 3D. The end-to-end hybrid simulations reveal poloidal profiles of implosion-driven fast toroidal plasma rotation and demonstrate three discharge regimes as a function of experimental parameters: the decaying stable configuration, the tilt unstable configuration, and the nonlinear evolution of a fast growing tearing mode. 2. FRC collisions with magnetic mirrors Interactions of fast plasma streams and objects with magnetic obstacles (dipoles, mirrors, etc) lie at the core of many space and laboratory plasma phenomena ranging from magnetoshells and solar wind interactions with planetary magnetospheres to compact fusion plasmas. HYPERS simulations are compared with data from the MSX experiment (LANL) that focuses on the physics of magnetized collisionless shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of FRC plasmoids against a strong magnetic mirrors and flux-conserving boundaries. 3. Exploding magnetoplasmas Results from hybrid simulations of two experiments at the LAPD and Nevada Terawatt Facility are discussed where short-pulse lasers are used to ablate solid targets to produce plasmas that expand across external magnetic fields. The first simulation recreates flutelike density striations observed at the leading edge of a carbon plasma and predicts an early destruction of the magnetic cavity in agreement with experimental evidence. In the second simulation a polyethylene target is ablated into a mixture of protons and carbon ions. A mechanism is demonstrated that allows protons to penetrate the magnetic field in the form of a collimated flow. The results are compared to experimental data and single-fluid MHD simulations. The EMAPS framework has the potential for wide application in many other engineering and scientific fields, such as climate models, biological systems, electronic devices, seismic events, oil reservation simulators that all involve advancing solutions of partial differential equations in time where the rate of activity can be adapted widely over the spatial domain depending on locally space/time phenomena (“events”).},
doi = {10.2172/1286088},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1286088}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {8}
}