skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Field application of pathogen detection technologies

Abstract

Over the last 10 years there has been a significant increase in commercial products designed for field-based detection of microbial pathogens. This is due, in part, to the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001, and the need for first responders to quickly identify the composition of suspected white powders and other potential biothreats. Demand for rapid detection is also driven by the need to ensure safe food, water, and environmental systems. From a technology perspective, rapid identification methods have largely capitalized on PCR and other molecular recognition techniques that can be deployed as robust field instrumentation. Examples of the relevant needs include the ability to: 1) declare a water distribution system free of microbial pathogens after a pipe/main break repair; 2) assess risks of contamination such as when produce production and processing plants are located near concentrated animal feeing operations; 3) evaluate the safety of ready-to-eat products; 4) determine the extent of potential serious disease outbreaks in remote and/or disaster stricken areas where access to clinical laboratories is not an immediate option; and 5) quickly assess credible biological terrorism events. Many of the principles underlying rapid detection methods are derived from methods for environmental microbiology, but there ismore » a dearth of literature describing and evaluating field-based detection systems. Thus, the aims of this chapter are to: 1) summarize the different kinds of commercially available sampling kits and field-based biological detectors; 2) highlight some of the continued challenges of sample preparation to stimulate new research towards minimizing the impact of inhibitors on PCR-based detection systems; 3) describe our general rationale and statistically-based approach for instrument evaluation; 4) provide statistical and spatial guidelines for developing valid sampling plans; and 5) summarize some current needs and emerging technologies. This information is presented both to highlight the state of the field, and to also highlight major questions that students may wish to consider investigating further. Where possible we will cite studies that have been conducted and published either in traditional peer-reviewed or other literature (e.g., AOAC International Methods).« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1282483
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-95424
400904120
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Book
Resource Relation:
Related Information: Manual of Environmental Microbiology 4th edition
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Straub, Tim M., Call, Douglas R., Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J., Colburn, Heather A., Baird, Cheryl L., Bartholomew, Rachel A., Ozanich, Richard M., and Jarman, Kristin H. Field application of pathogen detection technologies. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.3.4.
Straub, Tim M., Call, Douglas R., Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J., Colburn, Heather A., Baird, Cheryl L., Bartholomew, Rachel A., Ozanich, Richard M., & Jarman, Kristin H. Field application of pathogen detection technologies. United States. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.3.4.
Straub, Tim M., Call, Douglas R., Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J., Colburn, Heather A., Baird, Cheryl L., Bartholomew, Rachel A., Ozanich, Richard M., and Jarman, Kristin H. 2016. "Field application of pathogen detection technologies". United States. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.3.4.
@article{osti_1282483,
title = {Field application of pathogen detection technologies},
author = {Straub, Tim M. and Call, Douglas R. and Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J. and Colburn, Heather A. and Baird, Cheryl L. and Bartholomew, Rachel A. and Ozanich, Richard M. and Jarman, Kristin H.},
abstractNote = {Over the last 10 years there has been a significant increase in commercial products designed for field-based detection of microbial pathogens. This is due, in part, to the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001, and the need for first responders to quickly identify the composition of suspected white powders and other potential biothreats. Demand for rapid detection is also driven by the need to ensure safe food, water, and environmental systems. From a technology perspective, rapid identification methods have largely capitalized on PCR and other molecular recognition techniques that can be deployed as robust field instrumentation. Examples of the relevant needs include the ability to: 1) declare a water distribution system free of microbial pathogens after a pipe/main break repair; 2) assess risks of contamination such as when produce production and processing plants are located near concentrated animal feeing operations; 3) evaluate the safety of ready-to-eat products; 4) determine the extent of potential serious disease outbreaks in remote and/or disaster stricken areas where access to clinical laboratories is not an immediate option; and 5) quickly assess credible biological terrorism events. Many of the principles underlying rapid detection methods are derived from methods for environmental microbiology, but there is a dearth of literature describing and evaluating field-based detection systems. Thus, the aims of this chapter are to: 1) summarize the different kinds of commercially available sampling kits and field-based biological detectors; 2) highlight some of the continued challenges of sample preparation to stimulate new research towards minimizing the impact of inhibitors on PCR-based detection systems; 3) describe our general rationale and statistically-based approach for instrument evaluation; 4) provide statistical and spatial guidelines for developing valid sampling plans; and 5) summarize some current needs and emerging technologies. This information is presented both to highlight the state of the field, and to also highlight major questions that students may wish to consider investigating further. Where possible we will cite studies that have been conducted and published either in traditional peer-reviewed or other literature (e.g., AOAC International Methods).},
doi = {10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.3.4},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

Book:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this book.

Save / Share:
  • The book describes the latest in soil washing, soil flushing, and chemical extraction technologies for metals and organics. 80 figs., 59 tabs.
  • Recent advances in room-temperature tunable diode lasers and ultrasensitive electronic noise quieting detection techniques now enable a new generation of compact, optoelectronic, ultrasensitive trace gas sensors. These advances are key to producing sensors capable of routine and extended field use. The authors achieve near shot noise-limited signal detection using a novel, balanced ratiometric detector (BRD) which permits measurements of absorbances of 1:10{sup 6}. High sensitivity is achieved by coupling this technology with an extended optical pathlength. The BRD is characterized by a wide linear dynamic range. A 10 Hz measurement rate enables ground level flux measurements or airborne concentration measurements.more » The authors will present an overview of two applications of their ultrasensitive detection technology to in situ atmospheric sensing. The first sensor is being developed to monitor boundary layer NO{sub 2} fluxes. This sensor operates at 670 nm, utilizes an open multipass optical cell, and has a sub-ppbv detection sensitivity. The second sensor is an airborne, near IR (1.39 {micro}m) diode laser hygrometer. The sensor uses an in-situ air measurement probe housing a 50 cm, open optical path to circumvent problems inherent in extractive sampling. The sensor is capable of measuring water vapor throughout the troposphere and has a sensitivity of 0.5 ppmv at the tropopause.« less
  • S. 1191 is a bill to authorize appropriations for the Department of Commerce's Technology Administration, to speed the development and application of economically strategic technologies, and for other purposes.
  • Dry alkaline flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products, including Tidd PFBC bed and cyclone ash are being evaluated for beneficial uses via land application for agriculture, mine spoil reclamation, soil stabilization, and road embankment construction in a 5 year, $4.4 million research program based in Ohio. The beneficial use for agriculture and mine reclamation as a soil amendment material is primarily due to its high acid neutralizing capacity and gypsum content. Concentrations of leachate RCRA heavy metals approached primary drinking water quality standards and are well within the criteria for classification as non-toxic fly ash according to Ohio EPA policy. Characterizationmore » tests of compressive strength, permeability, and compressibility indicate the by-products are practical materials for use in high volume engineered fills or embankments, base courses, and for soil reinforcement. Large field demonstrations of technical, economic, and environmental feasibility have been completed using Tidd PFBC ash: (1) to reclaim abandoned coal mineland spoil, (2) as an agricultural lime substitute, (3) in stabilized base construction for a cattle feedlot, and (4) for reconstruction of two state highway embankments. An important factor to understand the behavior of this Tidd PFBC residue is that dolomite was the sorbent.« less