skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

Abstract

At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1more » minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) (SC-27)
OSTI Identifier:
1281776
Report Number(s):
SRNL-STI-2016-00424
TRN: US1601669
DOE Contract Number:
AC09-08SR22470
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; NANOPARTICLES; GOLD; MICROWAVE HEATING; SYNTHESIS; SOLVENTS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; PARTICLE SIZE; PRECURSOR; EFFICIENCY; SHAPE

Citation Formats

Krantz, Kelsie E., Christian, Jonathan H., Coopersmith, Kaitlin, Washington, II, Aaron L., and Murph, Simona H.. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1281776.
Krantz, Kelsie E., Christian, Jonathan H., Coopersmith, Kaitlin, Washington, II, Aaron L., & Murph, Simona H.. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis. United States. doi:10.2172/1281776.
Krantz, Kelsie E., Christian, Jonathan H., Coopersmith, Kaitlin, Washington, II, Aaron L., and Murph, Simona H.. 2016. "Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis". United States. doi:10.2172/1281776. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1281776.
@article{osti_1281776,
title = {Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis},
author = {Krantz, Kelsie E. and Christian, Jonathan H. and Coopersmith, Kaitlin and Washington, II, Aaron L. and Murph, Simona H.},
abstractNote = {At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.},
doi = {10.2172/1281776},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • Since Haruta’s discovery in 1987 of the surprising catalytic activity of supported Au nanoparticles, we have seen a very large number of experimental and theoretical efforts to explain this activity and to fully understand the nature of the behavior of the responsible active sites. In 2011, we discovered that a dual catalytic site at the perimeter of ~3nm diameter Au particles supported on TiO 2 is responsible for oxidative catalytic activity. O 2 molecules bind with Au atoms and Ti4+ ions in the TiO 2 support and the weakened O-O bond dissociates at low temperatures, proceeding to produce O atomsmore » which act as oxidizing agents for the test molecule, CO. The papers supported by DOE have built on this finding and have been concerned with two aspects of the behavior of Au/TiO 2 catalysts: (1). Mechanistic behavior of dual catalytic sites in the oxidation of organic molecules such as ethylene and acetic acid; (2). Studies of the electronic properties of the TiO 2 (110) single crystal in relation to its participation in charge transfer at the occupied dual catalytic site. A total of 20 papers have been produced through DOE support of this work. The papers combine IR spectroscopic investigations of Au/TiO 2 catalysts with surface science on the TiO 2(110) and TiO 2 nanoparticle surfaces with modern density functional modeling. The primary goals of the work were to investigate the behavior of the dual Au/Ti 4+ site for the partial oxidation of alcohols to acids, the hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols, and the condensation of oxygenate intermediates- all processes related to the utilization of biomass in the production of useful chemical energy sources.« less
  • Silicon nitride powders with an average size as low as 7 nm are synthesized in a pulsed radio frequency glow discharge. The as-synthesized silicon nitride powder from a silane/ammonia plasma has a high hydrogen content and is sensitive to oxidation in air. Post-plasma heating of the powder in a vacuum results in nitrogen loss, giving silicon-rich powder. In contrast, heat treatment at 800 C for 20 minutes in an ammonia atmosphere (200 Torr pressure) yields a hydrogen-free powder which is stable with respect to atmospheric oxidation. Several approaches to synthesizing silicon carbide nano-size powders are presented. Experiments using silane/hydrocarbon plasmasmore » produce particles with a high hydrogen content as demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The hydrogen is present as both CH and SiH functionality. These powders are extremely air-sensitive. A second approach uses a gas mixture of methyltrichlorosilane and hydrogen. The particles have a low hydrogen content and resist oxidation. Particle morphology of the silicon carbide is more spherical and there is less agglomeration than is observed in the silicon nitride powder.« less
  • We report a new strategy for synthesizing temperature-responsive γ-Fe2O3-core/Au-shell nanoparticles (Au-mNPs) from diblock copolymer micelles. The amphiphilic diblock copolymer chains were synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) with a thermally responsive “smart” poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) block and an amine-containing poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethylacrylamide) (DMAEAm) block that acted as a reducing agent during gold shell formation. The Au-mNPs reversibly aggregated upon heating the solution above the transition temperature of pNIPAAm, resulting in a red-shifted localized surface plasmon resonance.