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Title: Nanoengineered field induced charge separation membranes manufacture thereof

Abstract

A device according to one embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge and pore configuration characterized by a double layer overlap effect being present in pores of the membrane, where the porous membrane includes functional groups that preferentially interact with either cations or anions. A device according to another embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge in pores thereof sufficient to impart anion or cation selectivity in the pores. Additional devices, systems and methods are also presented.

Inventors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1281140
Patent Number(s):
9,403,128
Application Number:
14/185,053
Assignee:
Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Livermore, CA) LLNL
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Patent
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2014 Feb 20
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

O'Brien, Kevin C., Haslam, Jeffery J., Bourcier, William L., and Floyd, III, William Clary. Nanoengineered field induced charge separation membranes manufacture thereof. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
O'Brien, Kevin C., Haslam, Jeffery J., Bourcier, William L., & Floyd, III, William Clary. Nanoengineered field induced charge separation membranes manufacture thereof. United States.
O'Brien, Kevin C., Haslam, Jeffery J., Bourcier, William L., and Floyd, III, William Clary. Tue . "Nanoengineered field induced charge separation membranes manufacture thereof". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1281140.
@article{osti_1281140,
title = {Nanoengineered field induced charge separation membranes manufacture thereof},
author = {O'Brien, Kevin C. and Haslam, Jeffery J. and Bourcier, William L. and Floyd, III, William Clary},
abstractNote = {A device according to one embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge and pore configuration characterized by a double layer overlap effect being present in pores of the membrane, where the porous membrane includes functional groups that preferentially interact with either cations or anions. A device according to another embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge in pores thereof sufficient to impart anion or cation selectivity in the pores. Additional devices, systems and methods are also presented.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Aug 02 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Tue Aug 02 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Patent:

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  • A device according to one embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge and pore configuration characterized by a double layer overlap effect being present in pores of the membrane. A device according to another embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge in pores thereof sufficient to impart anion or cation selectivity in the pores. Additional devices, systems and methods are also presented.
  • Embodiments for a tubular ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane and methods for manufacturing the tubular ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane are disclosed.
  • Transparent titanium dioxide membranes (thickness 2.7 {mu}m) were prepared by sintering of 8-nm colloidal anatase particles on a conducting glass support. The dynamics of charge recombination following electron injection from the excited state of RuL{sub 3} (L = 2,2{prime}-bipyridine-4,4{prime}-dicarboxylic acid) into the conduction band of the semiconductor were examined under potentiostatic control of the electric field within the space charge layer of the membrane. Biasing the Fermi level of the TiO{sub 2} positive of the flat-band potential sharply reduced the recombination rate, a 1,000-fold decrease being associated with a potential change of only 300 mV. Photoelectrochemical experiments performed with themore » same RuL{sub 3}-loaded membrane in NaI-containing water show the onset of anodic photocurrent to occur in the same potential domain. Forward biasing of the membrane potential impairs photosensitized charge injection turning on the photoluminescence of the adsorbed sensitizer.« less
  • A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect themore » diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.« less
  • A description is given of a deuterium-tritium separation system wherein a source beam comprised of positively ionized deuterium (D/sup +/) and tritium (T/sup +/) is converted at different charge-exchange cell sections of the system to negatively ionized deuterium (D/sup -/) and tritium (T/sup -/). First, energy is added to the beam to accelerate the D/sup +/ ions to the velocity that is optimum for conversion of the D/sup +/ ions to D/sup -/ ions in a charge-exchange cell. The T/sup +/ ions are accelerated at the same time, but not to the optimum velocity since they are heavier than themore » D/sup +/ ions. The T/sup +/ ions are, therefore, not converted to T/sup -/ ions when the D/sup +/ ions are converted to D/sup -/ ions. This enables effective separation of the beam by deflection of the isotopes with an electrostatic field, the D- ions being defected in one direction and the T/sup +/ ions being deflected in the opposite direction. Next, more energy is added to the deflected beam of T/sup +/ ions to bring the T/sup +/ ions to the optimum velocity for their conversion to T/sup -/ ions. In a particular use of the invention, the beams of D/sup -/ and T/sup -/ ions are separately further accelerated and then converted to energetic neutral particles for injection as fuel into a thermonuclear reactor. The reactor exhaust of D/sup +/ and T/sup +/ and the D/sup +/ and T/sup +/ that was not converted in the respective sections is combined with the source beam and recycled through the system to increase the efficiency of the system.« less