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Title: X-ray diffraction gratings: Precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1275973
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 4; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2016-12-27 18:05:14; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Voronov, Dmitriy L., Lum, Paul, Naulleau, Patrick, Gullikson, Eric M., Fedorov, Alexei V., and Padmore, Howard A. X-ray diffraction gratings: Precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4960203.
Voronov, Dmitriy L., Lum, Paul, Naulleau, Patrick, Gullikson, Eric M., Fedorov, Alexei V., & Padmore, Howard A. X-ray diffraction gratings: Precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960203.
Voronov, Dmitriy L., Lum, Paul, Naulleau, Patrick, Gullikson, Eric M., Fedorov, Alexei V., and Padmore, Howard A. 2016. "X-ray diffraction gratings: Precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960203.
@article{osti_1275973,
title = {X-ray diffraction gratings: Precise control of ultra-low blaze angle via anisotropic wet etching},
author = {Voronov, Dmitriy L. and Lum, Paul and Naulleau, Patrick and Gullikson, Eric M. and Fedorov, Alexei V. and Padmore, Howard A.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1063/1.4960203},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 4,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1063/1.4960203

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
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  • Diffraction gratings are used from micron to nanometer wavelengths as dispersing elements in optical instruments. At shorter wavelengths, crystals can be used as diffracting elements, but due to the 3D nature of the interaction with light are wavelength selective rather than wavelength dispersing. There is an urgent need to extend grating technology into the x-ray domain of wavelengths from 1 to 0.1 nm, but this requires the use of gratings that have a faceted surface in which the facet angles are very small, typically less than 1°. Small facet angles are also required in the extreme ultra-violet and soft x-ray energymore » ranges in free electron laser applications, in order to reduce power density below a critical damage threshold. In this work, we demonstrate a technique based on anisotropic etching of silicon designed to produce very small angle facets with a high degree of perfection.« less
  • The Linac Coherent Light Source is upgrading its machine to high repetition rate and to extended ranges. Novel coatings, with limited surface oxidation, which are able to work at the carbon edge, are required. In addition, high-resolution soft X-ray monochromators become necessary. One of the big challenges is to design the mirror geometry and the grating profile to have high reflectivity (or efficiency) and at the same time survive the high peak energy of the free-electron laser pulses. For these reasons the experimental damage threshold, at 900 eV, of two platinum-coated gratings with different blazed angles has been investigated. The gratingsmore » were tested at 1° grazing incidence. To validate a model for which the damage threshold on the blaze grating can be estimated by calculating the damage threshold of a mirror with an angle of incidence identical to the angle of incidence on the grating plus the blaze angle, tests on Pt-coated substrates have also been performed. The results confirmed the prediction. Uncoated silicon, platinum and SiB 3 (both deposited on a silicon substrate) were also investigated. In general, the measured damage threshold at grazing incidence is higher than that calculated under the assumption that there is no energy transport from the volume where the photons are absorbed. However, it was found that, for the case of the SiB 3 coating, the grazing incidence condition did not increase the damage threshold, indicating that the energy transport away from the extinction volume is negligible.« less
  • The Linac Coherent Light Source is upgrading its machine to high repetition rate and to extended ranges. Novel coatings, with limited surface oxidation, which are able to work at the carbon edge, are required. In addition, high-resolution soft X-ray monochromators become necessary. One of the big challenges is to design the mirror geometry and the grating profile to have high reflectivity (or efficiency) and at the same time survive the high peak energy of the free-electron laser pulses. For these reasons the experimental damage threshold, at 900 eV, of two platinum-coated gratings with different blazed angles has been investigated. Themore » gratings were tested at 1° grazing incidence. To validate a model for which the damage threshold on the blaze grating can be estimated by calculating the damage threshold of a mirror with an angle of incidence identical to the angle of incidence on the grating plus the blaze angle, tests on Pt-coated substrates have also been performed. The results confirmed the prediction. Uncoated silicon, platinum and SiB 3 (both deposited on a silicon substrate) were also investigated. In general, the measured damage threshold at grazing incidence is higher than that calculated under the assumption that there is no energy transport from the volume where the photons are absorbed. Furthermore, it was found that, for the case of the SiB 3 coating, the grazing incidence condition did not increase the damage threshold, indicating that the energy transport away from the extinction volume is negligible.« less
  • Direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching of diffraction gratings on n-InP and n-GaInAsP in a 2-M HF/0.5-M KOH solution has been demonstrated using laser interference holography. Development of a maskless technique for producing gratings has potential application in the fabrication of distributed feedback lasers which are currently made by a multistep photoresist process. Submicron diffraction gratings having a period of 0.5 ..mu..m, corresponding to second-order feedback in GaInAsP at lambda = 1.55 ..mu..m, have been achieved. Measurements were obtained on the exposure characteristics, diffraction efficiency, and PEC etching sensitivity of gratings produced in InP and GaInAsP as a function of the writingmore » beam intensity, laser wavelength, material doping level, and grating spatial frequency. For grating frequencies greater than 100 mm/sup -1/ the sensitivity was observed to decrease approximately as the inverse square of the spatial frequency. In addition, undoped InP and GaInAsP exhibited significantly lower sensitivities than n-doped material.« less