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Title: High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

Abstract

Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verificationmore » of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Advanced Manufacturing Office (EE-5A)
OSTI Identifier:
1275741
Report Number(s):
DE-EE0005752
DOE Contract Number:
EE0005752
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Bates, Robert, and McConnell, Elizabeth. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1275741.
Bates, Robert, & McConnell, Elizabeth. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials. United States. doi:10.2172/1275741.
Bates, Robert, and McConnell, Elizabeth. 2016. "High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials". United States. doi:10.2172/1275741. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1275741.
@article{osti_1275741,
title = {High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials},
author = {Bates, Robert and McConnell, Elizabeth},
abstractNote = {Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.},
doi = {10.2172/1275741},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

Technical Report:

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  • Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature andmore » oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).« less
  • The machining characteristics of a molyhdenum alloy containing 1/2% titanium were studied relative to turning, face milling, drilling, reaming, and tapping operations. The data for the various machining tests are presented in graphical form to show the relationships between tool life cutting speed, feed, tool geometry, tool material, and cutting fluids. Grinding tests were conducted to determine the effect of grinding wheel grade, wheel speed, down feed, cross feed, and table speed on grinding ratio and surface finish. The data for these studies are presented in graphical form to show grinding ratio as a function of grinding variables. Results ofmore » individual tests including surface finish data are shown in tabular form. Force measurements were made for turning and drilling the Mo alloy. The data are shown graphical form to indicate the effect of machining variables on unit power, coefficient of friction, and tool forces. (auth)« less
  • The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig andmore » 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.« less
  • Reversible electrochemical reactions of copper, silver, mercury, and titanium electrodes in solutions of lithium bromide or lithium iodide in propylene carbonate were studied by the potentiometric triangular voltage method. Results showed that copper and silver halogens dissolved in excessive LiX in a complex manner, and that this tendency was minimized for Hg and Pb and not at all pronounced for Ti. Oxidation of electronically conductive active graphite was reversible in numerous nonaqueous solutions. A graphite anodic reaction was proven in organic electrolytic solutions of MX/PC (MX = LiClO/sub 4/, NaBF/sub 4/, KPF/sub 6/) by the oxidation of stoichiometric graphite compoundsmore » C/sub n/X with n greater than or equal to 24.« less