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Title: Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1270624
Report Number(s):
SLAC-REPRINT-2016-026
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 7
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
INST

Citation Formats

Chen, S.N., Gauthier, M., Bazalova-Carter, M., Bolanos, S., Glenzer, S., Riquier, R., Revet, G., Antici, P., Morabito, A., Propp, A., Starodubtsev, M., and Fuchs, J. Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4954921.
Chen, S.N., Gauthier, M., Bazalova-Carter, M., Bolanos, S., Glenzer, S., Riquier, R., Revet, G., Antici, P., Morabito, A., Propp, A., Starodubtsev, M., & Fuchs, J. Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954921.
Chen, S.N., Gauthier, M., Bazalova-Carter, M., Bolanos, S., Glenzer, S., Riquier, R., Revet, G., Antici, P., Morabito, A., Propp, A., Starodubtsev, M., and Fuchs, J. 2016. "Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954921.
@article{osti_1270624,
title = {Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability},
author = {Chen, S.N. and Gauthier, M. and Bazalova-Carter, M. and Bolanos, S. and Glenzer, S. and Riquier, R. and Revet, G. and Antici, P. and Morabito, A. and Propp, A. and Starodubtsev, M. and Fuchs, J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1063/1.4954921},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 7,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Radiochromic films (RCF) are commonly used in dosimetry for a wide range of radiation sources (electrons, protons, and photons) for medical, industrial, and scientific applications. They are multi-layered, which includes plastic substrate layers and sensitive layers that incorporate a radiation-sensitive dye. Quantitative dose can be retrieved by digitizing the film, provided that a prior calibration exists. Here, to calibrate the newly developed EBT3 and HDv2 RCFs from Gafchromic™, we used the Stanford Medical LINAC to deposit in the films various doses of 10 MeV photons, and by scanning the films using three independent EPSON Precision 2450 scanners, three independent EPSONmore » V750 scanners, and two independent EPSON 11000XL scanners. The films were scanned in separate RGB channels, as well as in black and white, and film orientation was varied. We found that the green channel of the RGB scan and the grayscale channel are in fact quite consistent over the different models of the scanner, although this comes at the cost of a reduction in sensitivity (by a factor ∼2.5 compared to the red channel). To allow any user to extend the absolute calibration reported here to any other scanner, we furthermore provide a calibration curve of the EPSON 2450 scanner based on absolutely calibrated, commercially available, optical density filters.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize EBT3 using two types of scanner, analyzing the factors of influence of each dosimetry system. Methods: The film used in this study was GAFCHROMIC EBT3, the films were exposed at a dose range between 0Gy a 9Gy in a solid water phantom, SSD=100cm, 5cm depth and perpendicularly to the 6MV photon beam generated by a Novalis TX linear accelerator equipped with an HDMLC. A Farmer type ion chamber TN30013 (PTW) was used to determine the dose delivered to the film. The films were digitized with a scanner EPSON expression 10000XL andmore » the VIDAR DosimetryPro Adventage RED. Software RIT113v6.1 was used for construction of the calibration curve and analysis. The film characteristics investigated were: response at different dose levels, sensitivity to orientation and side and resolution through the results of the spatial response function by analyzing a step pattern. Additionally, 20 IMRT treatment fields were measured with both scanner and compared with calculated dose using gamma index analysis (3%-3mm). Results: The OD obtained for dose level 2Gy in the orientation portrait of the film on the scanner EPSON is (0,222±0,19) and for Vidar RED (0,252±0,10) and landscape is for EPSON (0,211±0,25) and for Vidar RED (0,250±0,11) . The orientation dependence with respect to film side is about 0,09% for EPSON and about 0.03% for VIDAR. The spatial response function increase in response to the Gaussian function FWHM EPSON scanner (0.18mm) compared with VIDAR scanner function (less than 0.06mm) was observed. We analyzed 20 total plan dose distributions the number of pixels with gamma>1 (3%-3mm) was 0.7%±1.2 [0.1%; 2.82%] for EBT3-VIDAR y 2%±2.9 [0.2%; 3.5%] for EBT3-EPSON. Conclusion: VIDAR scanner shows better sensitivity. EBT3 film shows a different response between portrait and landscape orientation. Step pattern is better reproduce by VIDAR scanner.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric uncertainty associated with Gafchromic (EBT3) films and establish an absolute dosimetry protocol for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods: EBT3 films were irradiated at each of seven different dose levels between 1 and 15 Gy with open fields, and standard deviations of dose maps were calculated at each color channel for evaluation. A scanner non-uniform response correction map was built by registering and comparing film doses to the reference diode array-based dose map delivered with the same doses. To determine the temporal dependence of EBT3 films, the average correction factors of differentmore » dose levels as a function of time were evaluated up to four days after irradiation. An integrated film dosimetry protocol was developed for dose calibration, calibration curve fitting, dose mapping, and profile/gamma analysis. Patient specific quality assurance (PSQA) was performed for 93 SRS/SBRT treatment plans. Results: The scanner response varied within 1% for the field sizes less than 5 × 5 cm{sup 2}, and up to 5% for the field sizes of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. The scanner correction method was able to remove visually evident, irregular detector responses found for larger field sizes. The dose response of the film changed rapidly (∼10%) in the first two hours and plateaued afterwards, ∼3% change between 2 and 24 hours. The mean uncertainties (mean of the standard deviations) were <0.5% over the dose range 1∼15Gy for all color channels for the OD response curves. The percentage of points passing the 3%/1mm gamma criteria based on absolute dose analysis, averaged over all tests, was 95.0 ± 4.2. Conclusion: We have developed an absolute film dose dosimetry protocol using EBT3 films. The overall uncertainty has been established to be approximately 1% for SRS and SBRT PSQA. The work was supported by a Research Scholar Grant, RSG-15-137-01-CCE from the American Cancer Society.« less
  • Aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of using the new Gafchromic EBT3 film in a high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy quality assurance procedure. Owing to the reduced dimensions of the involved lesions, the feasibility of scanning plan verification films on the scanner plate area with the best uniformity rather than using a correction mask was evaluated. For this purpose, signal values dispersion and reproducibility of film scans were investigated. Uniformity was then quantified in the selected area and was found to be within 1.5% for doses up to 8 Gy. A high-dose threshold level for analyses usingmore » this procedure was established evaluating the sensitivity of the irradiated films. Sensitivity was found to be of the order of centiGray for doses up to 6.2 Gy and decreasing for higher doses. The obtained results were used to implement a procedure comparing dose distributions delivered with a CyberKnife system to planned ones. The procedure was validated through single beam irradiation on a Gafchromic film. The agreement between dose distributions was then evaluated for 13 patients (brain lesions, 5 Gy/die prescription isodose ~80%) using gamma analysis. Results obtained using Gamma test criteria of 5%/1 mm show a pass rate of 94.3%. Gamma frequency parameters calculation for EBT3 films showed to strongly depend on subtraction of unexposed film pixel values from irradiated ones. In the framework of the described dosimetric procedure, EBT3 films proved to be effective in the verification of high doses delivered to lesions with complex shapes and adjacent to organs at risk.« less
  • Purpose: The Valencia applicators have recently been introduced for HDR treatment of small and shallow superficial skin lesions (< 20 mm diameter and 3-mm depth). Per AAPM TG 56, any HDR applicator internal dimensions must be verified prior to clinical use. However radiographic and tomographic imaging to validate the Valencia applicators is impractical due to the Tungsten alloy housing and flattening filter. In this study, we propose to use EBT3 film to indirectly confirm the physical integrity of the Valencia applicators. Methods: Treatment plans were created using the Oncentra MasterPlan TPS v4.5 for the H2 (20-mm dia.) and H3 (30-mmmore » dia.) Valencia Applicators. A virtual CT phantom (2-mm slice thickness) was created with one source position in water. The published effective depth method was used for each applicator to delivery 500 cGy to a 3-mm depth using the TG-43 formalism. Film measurements (n=3) at 3-mm depth and vertical plane in solid water were performed for each applicator to verify the prescribed dose calculated by the TPS. Percent depth dose curves and off-axis profiles (phantom surface and 3-mm depth) were measured and compared to published data. Films were analyzed using an in-house written program and RIT113 v6 software. Film calibration was performed per TG-55 protocol using the Ir-192 source with NIST-traceable calibration. Results: The prescription absolute dose difference was 1% for the Valencia H2 applicator and 4% for the Valencia H3 applicator. The measured percent depth dose curves and off-axis dose profiles measured for the H2 and H2 Valencia applicators are in excellent agreement with the Granero et al. Monte Carlo results{sup 1}. Conclusion: Gafchromic EBT3 film can be used to indirectly verify the internal components of special HDR skin applicators constructed from high Z materials.{sup 1}Granero et al. “Design and evaluation of a HDR skin applicator with flattening filter”, Med. Phys. 35(2), 495–503, 2008.« less