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Title: Use of a Respirometer to Measure Oxidation Rates of Polymeric Materials.

Abstract

Abstract not provided.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1268192
Report Number(s):
SAND2007-1330C
526760
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Proposed for presentation at the American Chemical Society National Spring Meeting held March 25-29, 2007 in Chicago, IL.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Assink, Roger A., Garcia, Toby L., and Celina, Mathias C. Use of a Respirometer to Measure Oxidation Rates of Polymeric Materials.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Assink, Roger A., Garcia, Toby L., & Celina, Mathias C. Use of a Respirometer to Measure Oxidation Rates of Polymeric Materials.. United States.
Assink, Roger A., Garcia, Toby L., and Celina, Mathias C. Thu . "Use of a Respirometer to Measure Oxidation Rates of Polymeric Materials.". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1268192.
@article{osti_1268192,
title = {Use of a Respirometer to Measure Oxidation Rates of Polymeric Materials.},
author = {Assink, Roger A. and Garcia, Toby L. and Celina, Mathias C.},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • Abstract not provided.
  • The use of a respirometer is introduced as a novel technique for measuring the oxidation rates of thermally degrading polymers. A dual channel respirometer with fuel cell detectors demonstrates sufficient sensitivity to measure the oxidation rates of low-density polymeric samples at ambient temperatures in a relatively short period of time. Samples of low-density polyurethane foam were aged for various lengths of time in sealed chambers at temperatures ranging from 23 to 110 C. The extent of oxygen depletion was measured by flushing the chamber with air and comparing the oxygen concentration in the chamber flow to that of a referencemore » flow. Oxidation rates of the 0.1 g/cm{sup 3} polyurethane foam could be measured in less than 600 h of aging time at 23 C. This corresponds to approximately 2 ppm oxidation by weight. Oxidation rates of the foam were used to calculate acceleration factors over a wide temperature range, including ambient conditions. Acceleration factors for the compressive force of the polyurethane foam were determined at elevated temperatures. Assuming that the aging behavior of compressive force of the foam is correlated to its oxidation rate, it is possible to calculate acceleration factors for the compressive force and predict the performance of the foam at ambient temperatures.« less
  • Coatings and bulk specimens of high-performance polymers and composites were exposed to brine in the laboratory and in the field. Several levels of temperature and flow conditions were employed. Physical changes, scaling tendencies, and changes in surface characteristics resulting from exposure were studied by techniques including optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and contact-angle measurements. Certain fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon polymers continue to respond favorably to the severe geothermal environment. Surface roughness, either present originally or developed during exposure, appears to be an important factor in promoting scaling and scale adhesion. 14 refs.
  • Ceramic materials evaluated in the screening studies were Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99.8%), mullite, vitreous silica, BaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiO/sub 3/, CaZrO/sub 3/, CaTiSiO/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, ZrSiO/sub 4/, basalt, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor code 9658 machinable glass ceramic. One grade of graphite (Toyotanso IB-11) was also evaluated. Demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford groundwater, and a synthetic NaCl brine solution were used in the screening tests. Demineralized water was used in all five of the leach tests, but the other solutions were only used in the static leach tests at 150 and 250/sup 0/C. Based on the results obtained, graphite appears tomore » be the most leach resistant of the materials tested with the two grades of alumina being the best of the ceramic materials. Titanium dioxide and ZrO/sub 2/ are the most leach resistant of the remaining materials. Candidate materials from all three general classes of polymers (thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers) were considered in the selection of materials. Selected groups of polymers were tested in the flowing autoclave at 150, 200, and 250/sup 0/C with some polymers being further tested at the next higher temperature. Next, selected samples were exposed to gamma radiation. These samples were then submitted for tensile and elongation measurements. Selected samples which appeared promising from both autoclave and radiation testing were further evaluated by impact tests. The materials that appeared most promising after autoclave testing were the EPDM rubbers, polyphenylene sulfide, poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) copolymer, and polyfurfuryl alcohol. The radiation dose had little effect on polyfurfuryl alcohol and polyphenylene sulfide samples; very significant decreases in elongation were observed for the fluorocarbon copolymer and the EPDM rubbers. While the polyphenylene sulfide and polyfurfuryl alcohol showed little change in impact strength, poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) decreased in impact strength.« less
  • Energy storage is a potentially effective method of increasing efficiency of total energy systems and making possible the substitution of coal, nuclear, and other renewable energy sources for oil and natural gas. To justify the incorporation of energy storage components in energy systems, they must be cost-effective and reliable. Polymers have been judged to be choice materials in a large number of applications because of cost, weight, and performance requirements. The applications for polymers include structural, electrochemical and special-purpose use. Uses of polymeric materials discussed include: (1) flywheels; (2) latent heat storage; (3) polymer electrolytes for hydrogen production by electrolysismore » of water; (4) copolymer ion exchange membranes in electric batteries (redox cells); and (5) structural materials in superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. (TFD)« less