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Title: Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing

Abstract

ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus ® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. American Process Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Advanced Manufacturing Office (EE-5A)
OSTI Identifier:
1267066
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2016/320
ED2802000; CEED492; CRADA/NFE-1505661
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Ozcan, Soydan, Tekinalp, Halil L., Love, Lonnie J., Kunc, Vlastimil, and Nelson, Kim. Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1267066.
Ozcan, Soydan, Tekinalp, Halil L., Love, Lonnie J., Kunc, Vlastimil, & Nelson, Kim. Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing. United States. doi:10.2172/1267066.
Ozcan, Soydan, Tekinalp, Halil L., Love, Lonnie J., Kunc, Vlastimil, and Nelson, Kim. 2016. "Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing". United States. doi:10.2172/1267066. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1267066.
@article{osti_1267066,
title = {Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing},
author = {Ozcan, Soydan and Tekinalp, Halil L. and Love, Lonnie J. and Kunc, Vlastimil and Nelson, Kim},
abstractNote = {ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.},
doi = {10.2172/1267066},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Technical Report:

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  • Additive manufacturing (AM) is transitioning from being only a prototyping method towards becoming a manufacturing technique for the quick production of parts with complex geometries. For the complete realization of this transition, the mechanical properties of the printed parts have to meet the requirements of actual load-bearing structural components. Integration of a reinforcing second phase into a polymer is a viable approach for the improvement of resins mechanical performance. Addition of carbon fibers into acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) has already been shown to improve its mechanical properties compared to the neat ABS resin (both additively manufactured), and led to the manufacture ofmore » world s first 3D-printed car. However, both ABS resin and carbon fibers are petroleum-based products, and there is a continuous search for alternative, bio-sourced, renewable materials as a feedstock for manufacturing. Towards this direction, we have investigated the potential of cellulose nanofibril-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) resin systems as an alternative. CNF-PLA composite systems with up to 40 wt% CNF loadings were prepared via compression molding technique and tested. Significant improvements in both tensile strength (80%) and elastic modulus (128%) were observed. Filaments prepared from the same compositions were also successfully 3D-printed into tensile testing specimens with up to 30% CNF concentrations, and showed similar improvements in mechanical performance. Although CNFs were not individually dispersed in PLA matrix, they were observed to be well blended with the polymer based on SEM micrographs. In summary, preparation and 3D-printing of a 100% bio-based feedstock material with the mechanical properties comparable to the carbon fiber-ABS system was successfully demonstrated that it can open up new window of opportunities in the additive manufacturing industry. Acknowledgement Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.« less
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  • This report provides a theoretical background for three constitutive models for a continuous strand mat (CSM) glass fiber-thermoset polymer matrix composite. The models were developed during fiscal years 1994 through 1997 as a part of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, "Application of High-Performance Computing to Automotive Design and Manufacturing." The full derivation of constitutive relations in the framework of the continuum program DYNA3D and have been used for the simulation and impact analysis of CSM composite tubes. The analysis of simulation and experimental results show that the model based on strain tensor split yields the most accurate results ofmore » the three implemented models. The parameters used in the models and their derivation from the physical tests are documented.« less
  • The purpose of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc. (PST) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was to develop an additive manufacturing process to fabricate next generation high temperature masking fixtures for coating of turbine airfoils with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) by the Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) process. Typical masking fixtures are sophisticated designs and require complex part manipulation in order to achieve the desired coating distribution. Fixtures are typically fabricated from high temperature nickel (Ni) based superalloys. The fixtures are fabricated from conventional processes by welding of thin sheetmore » material into a complex geometry, to decrease the weight load for the manipulator and to reduce the thermal mass of the fixture. Recent attempts have been made in order to fabricate the fixtures through casting, but thin walled sections are difficult to cast and have high scrap rates. This project focused on understanding the potential for fabricating high temperature Ni based superalloy fixtures through additive manufacturing. Two different deposition processes; electron beam melting (EBM) and laser powder bed fusion were evaluated to determine the ideal processing route of these materials. Two different high temperature materials were evaluated. The high temperature materials evaluated were Inconel 718 and another Ni base alloy, designated throughout the remainder of this document as Alloy X, as the alloy composition is sensitive. Inconel 718 is a more widely utilized material for additive manufacturing although it is not currently the material utilized for current fixtures. Alloy X is the alloy currently used for the fixtures, but is not a commercially available alloy for additive manufacturing. Praxair determined it was possible to build the fixture using laser powder bed technology from Inconel 718. ORNL fabricated the fixture geometry using the EBM technology in order to compare deposition features such as surface roughness, geometric accuracy, deposition rate, surface and subsurface porosity, and material quality. It was determined that the laser powder bed technology was ideal for the geometry and requirements of the fixture set by Praxair, and Praxair moved forward with the purchase of a laser powder bed system. The subsequent portion of the project focused on determining the ideal processing parameters for alloy X for the laser powder bed system using ORNL’s Renishaw laser powder bed system. Praxair supplied gas atomized powders of alloy X material with properties specified by ORNL. ORNL printed text cube arrays in order to determine the ideal combination of laser powder and laser travel speed in order to maximize material density, improve surface quality, and maintain geometric accuracy. Additional powder supplied by Praxair was used to fabricate a full-scale fixture component.« less
  • The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayedmore » significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.« less