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Title: Low-cost, High-energy Si/graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

Authors:
 [1]
  1. XG Sciences Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
XG Sciences Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1266346
Report Number(s):
DOE-XGS-09225
DOE Contract Number:
SC0009225
Type / Phase:
SBIR
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; Lithium Battery; Silicon Anode; Graphene; Energy Density

Citation Formats

Colwell, John. Low-cost, High-energy Si/graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Colwell, John. Low-cost, High-energy Si/graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries. United States.
Colwell, John. 2016. "Low-cost, High-energy Si/graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1266346,
title = {Low-cost, High-energy Si/graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries},
author = {Colwell, John},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

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  • The use of nonaqueous, molten salt and solid electrolytes for high-energy-density storage batteries (SB's) with anodes of Li, Na, Ca, Mg, Al and Ti is discussed. Means to overcome the shortcomings of these systems, viz. low conductivity of the electrolyte, poor quality of the anodic metal deposited during recharging of the nonaqueous systems, high operating temperatures, of the molten salts and instability of solid-state electrolytes are considered. Electrolytes with compositions in the transition region between the pure electrolyte and its solutions in the solvent are suggested for examination in secondary battery systems with each of the six light anodes mentionedmore » above.« less
  • Research and development on a new rechargeable cell SCl/sub 3//sup +/ in AlCl/sub 3/--NaCl/Na/sup +/ ion conductor/Na is reported. This cell operates at temperatures in the range 220 to 250/sup 0/C, and has an open circuit voltage of 4.2V. The research during the past year has involved additional electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and spectroscopic (Raman and electron spin resonance) studies of sulfur and its oxidation products in chloroaluminate melts. Laboratory cell development has involved studies with three Na/sup +/ ion conductors: ..beta..''-alumina, ..beta..-alumina (from NGK) and NASICON. Only the first material was found to be satisfactory in this cell. One of themore » cells studied underwent 47 deep discharge/charge cycles at current densities 10 to 50 mA/cm/sup 2/ before it failed due to a crack in the ..beta..''-alumina tube. The performance of a cell prepared in the discharged state (elemental sulfur in equimolar AlCl/sub 3/--NaCl) was found to be the same as that of a cell prepared in the charged state (SCl/sub 3/AlCl/sub 4/ in an AlCl/sub 3/-rich melt). 17 figures, 4 tables.« less
  • The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to September 1979 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte. During this reporting period, cell and battery development work has continued at ANL and contractors'more » laboratories. A 40 kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered to ANL for testing. During the initial heat-up, one of the two modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 107 figures, 67 tables.« less
  • The research and management efforts of Argonne National Laboratory's program on lithium/metal sulfide batteries during the period January--March 1976 are described. These batteries are being developed for energy storage on utility networks and for electric-vehicle propulsion. The present cells are vertically oriented, prismatic cells with a central positive electrode of FeS or FeS/sub 2/ and two facing negative electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and an electrolyte of molten LiCl--KCl. The cell operating temperature is 400 to 450/sup 0/C. The type of cell receiving major attention is one in which the electrodes are assembled in the uncharged state. The active material inmore » the positive electrode is a mixture of Li/sub 2/S and iron; the electrode is formed by hot-pressing this material with electrolyte, by loading it into a porous structure of metal, or by incorporating it into a carbon-bonded structure. The negative electrode is a porous aluminum structure, with which the lithium reacts on first charge to form a lithium--aluminum alloy. Several methods of adding excess lithium capacity to the cell are being investigated. Efforts are being made to develop feedthroughs and electrode separators that meet performance and cost goals. Work is also being carried out on an improved design of a battery for energy storage on utility networks and on design and fabrication of other battery components. Li/sub 2/S is being characterized in terms of purity and physical characteritics to determine its suitability for use in fabricating uncharged cells. Work is continuing on the development of alternative secondary cell systems with calcium- or magnesium- based negative electrodes and molten-salt electrolytes. 20 figures, 13 tables.« less