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Title: CuInP 2S 6 Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric

Abstract

In this paper, we explore ferroelectric properties of cleaved 2-D flakes of copper indium thiophosphate, CuInP 2S 6 (CITP), and probe size effects along with limits of ferroelectric phase stability, by ambient and ultra high vacuum scanning probe microscopy. CITP belongs to the only material family known to display ferroelectric polarization in a van der Waals, layered crystal at room temperature and above. Our measurements directly reveal stable, ferroelectric polarization as evidenced by domain structures, switchable polarization, and hysteresis loops. We found that at room temperature the domain structure of flakes thicker than 100 nm is similar to the cleaved bulk surfaces, whereas below 50 nm polarization disappears. We ascribe this behavior to a well-known instability of polarization due to depolarization field. Furthermore, polarization switching at high bias is also associated with ionic mobility, as evidenced both by macroscopic measurements and by formation of surface damage under the tip at a bias of 4 V—likely due to copper reduction. Mobile Cu ions may therefore also contribute to internal screening mechanisms. Finally, the existence of stable polarization in a van-der-Waals crystal naturally points toward new strategies for ultimate scaling of polar materials, quasi-2D, and single-layer materials with advanced and nonlinear dielectricmore » properties that are presently not found in any members of the growing “graphene family”.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [2];  [5];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Inst. for Functional Imaging of Materials. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences
  2. Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Faculty of Physics
  3. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), Kyiv (Ukraine). Inst. for Problems of Material Sciences
  4. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), Kyiv (Ukraine). Inst. of Physics
  5. Uzhgorod Univ. (Ukraine). Inst. of Solid State Physics and Chemistry
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1265589
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 2D crystals; atomic force microscopy; ferroelectricity; layered materials

Citation Formats

Belianinov, Alex, He, Qian, Dziaugys, Andrius, Maksymovych, Petro, Eliseev, Eugene, Borisevich, Albina Y., Morozovska, Anna N., Banys, Juras, Vysochanskii, Yulian, and Kalinin, Sergei V. CuInP2S6 Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00491.
Belianinov, Alex, He, Qian, Dziaugys, Andrius, Maksymovych, Petro, Eliseev, Eugene, Borisevich, Albina Y., Morozovska, Anna N., Banys, Juras, Vysochanskii, Yulian, & Kalinin, Sergei V. CuInP2S6 Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00491.
Belianinov, Alex, He, Qian, Dziaugys, Andrius, Maksymovych, Petro, Eliseev, Eugene, Borisevich, Albina Y., Morozovska, Anna N., Banys, Juras, Vysochanskii, Yulian, and Kalinin, Sergei V. Fri . "CuInP2S6 Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00491. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1265589.
@article{osti_1265589,
title = {CuInP2S6 Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric},
author = {Belianinov, Alex and He, Qian and Dziaugys, Andrius and Maksymovych, Petro and Eliseev, Eugene and Borisevich, Albina Y. and Morozovska, Anna N. and Banys, Juras and Vysochanskii, Yulian and Kalinin, Sergei V.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we explore ferroelectric properties of cleaved 2-D flakes of copper indium thiophosphate, CuInP2S6 (CITP), and probe size effects along with limits of ferroelectric phase stability, by ambient and ultra high vacuum scanning probe microscopy. CITP belongs to the only material family known to display ferroelectric polarization in a van der Waals, layered crystal at room temperature and above. Our measurements directly reveal stable, ferroelectric polarization as evidenced by domain structures, switchable polarization, and hysteresis loops. We found that at room temperature the domain structure of flakes thicker than 100 nm is similar to the cleaved bulk surfaces, whereas below 50 nm polarization disappears. We ascribe this behavior to a well-known instability of polarization due to depolarization field. Furthermore, polarization switching at high bias is also associated with ionic mobility, as evidenced both by macroscopic measurements and by formation of surface damage under the tip at a bias of 4 V—likely due to copper reduction. Mobile Cu ions may therefore also contribute to internal screening mechanisms. Finally, the existence of stable polarization in a van-der-Waals crystal naturally points toward new strategies for ultimate scaling of polar materials, quasi-2D, and single-layer materials with advanced and nonlinear dielectric properties that are presently not found in any members of the growing “graphene family”.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00491},
journal = {Nano Letters},
issn = {1530-6984},
number = 6,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}

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Works referencing / citing this record:

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Two-dimensional materials with piezoelectric and ferroelectric functionalities
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Ferroelectric or non-ferroelectric: Why so many materials exhibit “ferroelectricity” on the nanoscale
journal, June 2017

  • Vasudevan, Rama K.; Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Peter
  • Applied Physics Reviews, Vol. 4, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4979015