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Title: Effect of Water Vapor, Temperature, and Rapid Annealing on Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Crystallization

Abstract

Perovskite-based solar cells are one of the emerging candidates for radically lower cost photovoltaics. Herein, we report on the synthesis and crystallization of organic-inorganic formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite films under controlled atmospheric and environmental conditions. Using in situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, we make observations of the crystallization process of these materials in nitrogen and oxygen gas with and without the presence of water vapor. Complementary planar samples were also fabricated in the presence of water vapor and characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction. Direct observations of the material structure and final morphology indicate that the exposure to water vapor results in a porous film that is metastable, regardless of the presence of argon, nitrogen, or oxygen. However, the optimal crystallization temperature of 175 degrees C is unperturbed across conditions. Rapid modulation about the annealing temperature of 175 degrees C in +/-25 degrees C steps (150-200 degrees C) promotes crystallization and significantly improves the film morphology by overcoming the presence of impregnated water trapped in the material. Following this processing protocol, we demonstrate substantial growth to micron-size grains via observation inside of an environmentally controlled transmission electron microscope. Adapting this insight from our in situ microscopy, we are able tomore » provide an informed materials protocol to control the structure and morphology of these organic-inorganic semiconductors, which is readily applicable to benchtop device growth strategies.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1265052
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-66601
Journal ID: ISSN 2380-8195
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ACS Energy Letters; Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; perovskite; solar cells; synthesis; crystallization

Citation Formats

Aguiar, Jeffery A., Wozny, Sarah, Alkurd, Nooraldeen R., Yang, Mengjin, Kovarik, Libor, Holesinger, Terry G., Al-Jassim, Mowafak, Zhu, Kai, Zhou, Weilie, and Berry, Joseph J.. Effect of Water Vapor, Temperature, and Rapid Annealing on Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Crystallization. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00042.
Aguiar, Jeffery A., Wozny, Sarah, Alkurd, Nooraldeen R., Yang, Mengjin, Kovarik, Libor, Holesinger, Terry G., Al-Jassim, Mowafak, Zhu, Kai, Zhou, Weilie, & Berry, Joseph J.. Effect of Water Vapor, Temperature, and Rapid Annealing on Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Crystallization. United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00042.
Aguiar, Jeffery A., Wozny, Sarah, Alkurd, Nooraldeen R., Yang, Mengjin, Kovarik, Libor, Holesinger, Terry G., Al-Jassim, Mowafak, Zhu, Kai, Zhou, Weilie, and Berry, Joseph J.. Fri . "Effect of Water Vapor, Temperature, and Rapid Annealing on Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Crystallization". United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00042.
@article{osti_1265052,
title = {Effect of Water Vapor, Temperature, and Rapid Annealing on Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Crystallization},
author = {Aguiar, Jeffery A. and Wozny, Sarah and Alkurd, Nooraldeen R. and Yang, Mengjin and Kovarik, Libor and Holesinger, Terry G. and Al-Jassim, Mowafak and Zhu, Kai and Zhou, Weilie and Berry, Joseph J.},
abstractNote = {Perovskite-based solar cells are one of the emerging candidates for radically lower cost photovoltaics. Herein, we report on the synthesis and crystallization of organic-inorganic formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite films under controlled atmospheric and environmental conditions. Using in situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, we make observations of the crystallization process of these materials in nitrogen and oxygen gas with and without the presence of water vapor. Complementary planar samples were also fabricated in the presence of water vapor and characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction. Direct observations of the material structure and final morphology indicate that the exposure to water vapor results in a porous film that is metastable, regardless of the presence of argon, nitrogen, or oxygen. However, the optimal crystallization temperature of 175 degrees C is unperturbed across conditions. Rapid modulation about the annealing temperature of 175 degrees C in +/-25 degrees C steps (150-200 degrees C) promotes crystallization and significantly improves the film morphology by overcoming the presence of impregnated water trapped in the material. Following this processing protocol, we demonstrate substantial growth to micron-size grains via observation inside of an environmentally controlled transmission electron microscope. Adapting this insight from our in situ microscopy, we are able to provide an informed materials protocol to control the structure and morphology of these organic-inorganic semiconductors, which is readily applicable to benchtop device growth strategies.},
doi = {10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00042},
journal = {ACS Energy Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jul 08 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Jul 08 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}