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Title: Experimental results on TMDs

Abstract

QCD factorisation for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering at low transverse momentum in the current-fragmentation region has been established recently, providing a rigorous basis to study the Transverse Momentum Dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMDs) of partons from Semi-Inclusive DIS data using different spin-dependent and spin-independent observables. The main focus of the experiments were the measurements of various single- and double-spin asymmetries in hadron electro-production (ep{up-arrow} --> ehX ) with unpolarised, longitudinally and transversely polarised targets. The joint use of a longitudinally polarised beam and longitudinally and transversely polarised targets allowed to measure double-spin asymmetries (DSA) related to leading-twist distribution functions describing the transverse momentum distribution of longitudinally and transversely polarised quarks in a longitudinally and transversely polarised nucleons (helicity and worm-gear TMDs). Furthermore, the single-spin asymmetries (SSA) measured with transversely polarised targets, provided access to specific leading-twist parton distribution functions: the transversity, the Sivers function and the so-called 'pretzelosity' function. In this review we present the current status and some future measurements of TMDs worldwide.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1264169
Report Number(s):
JLAB-PHY-16-2225; DOE/OR/23177-3862
Journal ID: ISSN 1434-6001; PII: 518
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-06OR23177
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
European Physical Journal. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 52; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1434-6001
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

None, None. Experimental results on TMDs. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1140/epja/i2016-16150-x.
None, None. Experimental results on TMDs. United States. doi:10.1140/epja/i2016-16150-x.
None, None. 2016. "Experimental results on TMDs". United States. doi:10.1140/epja/i2016-16150-x. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1264169.
@article{osti_1264169,
title = {Experimental results on TMDs},
author = {None, None},
abstractNote = {QCD factorisation for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering at low transverse momentum in the current-fragmentation region has been established recently, providing a rigorous basis to study the Transverse Momentum Dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMDs) of partons from Semi-Inclusive DIS data using different spin-dependent and spin-independent observables. The main focus of the experiments were the measurements of various single- and double-spin asymmetries in hadron electro-production (ep{up-arrow} --> ehX ) with unpolarised, longitudinally and transversely polarised targets. The joint use of a longitudinally polarised beam and longitudinally and transversely polarised targets allowed to measure double-spin asymmetries (DSA) related to leading-twist distribution functions describing the transverse momentum distribution of longitudinally and transversely polarised quarks in a longitudinally and transversely polarised nucleons (helicity and worm-gear TMDs). Furthermore, the single-spin asymmetries (SSA) measured with transversely polarised targets, provided access to specific leading-twist parton distribution functions: the transversity, the Sivers function and the so-called 'pretzelosity' function. In this review we present the current status and some future measurements of TMDs worldwide.},
doi = {10.1140/epja/i2016-16150-x},
journal = {European Physical Journal. A},
number = 6,
volume = 52,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

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  • Transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions are a key ingredient in the description of spin and azimuthal asymmetries in deep-inelastic scattering processes. Recent results from non-perturbative calculations in effective approaches are reviewed, with focus on relations among different parton distribution functions in QCD and models.
  • Theoretical advances in studies of the nucleon structure have been spurred by recent measurements of spin and/or azimuthal asymmetries worldwide. One of the main challenges still remaining is the extraction of the parton distribution functions, generalized to describe transverse momentum and spatial distributions of partons from these observables with no or minimal model dependence. In this topical review we present the latest developments in the field with emphasis on requirements for Monte Carlo event generators, indispensable for studies of the complex 3D nucleon structure, and discuss examples of possible applications.
  • We set up a formalism for calculating transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) of a large nucleus using the tools of saturation physics. By generalizing the quasi-classical Glauber–Gribov–Mueller/McLerran–Venugopalan approximation to allow for the possibility of spin–orbit coupling, we show how any TMD can be calculated in the saturation framework. This can also be applied to the TMDs of a proton by modeling it as a large “nucleus.” To illustrate our technique, we calculate the quark TMDs of an unpolarized nucleus at large-x: the unpolarized quark distribution and the quark Boer–Mulders distribution. Here, we observe that spin–orbit coupling leads to mixing betweenmore » different TMDs of the nucleus and of the nucleons. We then consider the evolution of TMDs: at large-x, in the double-logarithmic approximation, we obtain the Sudakov form factor. At small-x the evolution of unpolarized-target quark TMDs is governed by BK/JIMWLK evolution, while the small-x evolution of polarized-target quark TMDs appears to be dominated by the QCD Reggeon.« less
  • We set up a formalism for calculating transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) of a large nucleus using the tools of saturation physics. By generalizing the quasi-classical Glauber–Gribov–Mueller/McLerran–Venugopalan approximation to allow for the possibility of spin–orbit coupling, we show how any TMD can be calculated in the saturation framework. This can also be applied to the TMDs of a proton by modeling it as a large “nucleus.” To illustrate our technique, we calculate the quark TMDs of an unpolarized nucleus at large-x: the unpolarized quark distribution and the quark Boer–Mulders distribution. Here, we observe that spin–orbit coupling leads to mixing betweenmore » different TMDs of the nucleus and of the nucleons. We then consider the evolution of TMDs: at large-x, in the double-logarithmic approximation, we obtain the Sudakov form factor. At small-x the evolution of unpolarized-target quark TMDs is governed by BK/JIMWLK evolution, while the small-x evolution of polarized-target quark TMDs appears to be dominated by the QCD Reggeon.« less
  • With two options studied at Brookhaven National Lab and Jefferson Laboratory the U.S., an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) of energy √s=20-100 GeV was under design. Furthermore, the recent 2015 US Nuclear Science Long-Range Planning effort included a future EIC as a recommendation for future construction. The EIC will be unique in colliding polarised electrons off polarised protons and light nuclei, providing the spin degrees of freedom essential to pursue its physics program driven by spin structure, multi-dimensional tomographic images of protons and nuclei, and discovery of the role of collective effects of gluons in nuclei. The foreseen luminosity of the EIC,more » coupled with its energy variability and reach, will allow unprecedented three-dimensional imaging of the gluon and sea quark distributions, via both TMDs and GPDs, and to explore correlations amongst them. Its hermetic detection capability of correlated fragments promises to similar allow for precise tomographic images of the quark-gluon landscape in nuclei, transcending from light few-body nuclei to the heaviest nuclei, and could uncover how the TMD and GPD landscape changes when gluons display an anticipated collective behavior at the higher energies.« less