Quantum random number generation
Abstract
Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness  coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is selftesting QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semiselftesting QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.
 Authors:
 Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
 Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
 Publication Date:
 Research Org.:
 Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
 Sponsoring Org.:
 USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
 OSTI Identifier:
 1261542
 Grant/Contract Number:
 AC0500OR22725
 Resource Type:
 Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
 Journal Name:
 npj Quantum Information
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 20566387
 Publisher:
 Nature Partner Journals
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS
Citation Formats
Ma, Xiongfeng, Yuan, Xiao, Cao, Zhu, Zhang, Zhen, and Qi, Bing. Quantum random number generation. United States: N. p., 2016.
Web. doi:10.1038/npjqi.2016.21.
Ma, Xiongfeng, Yuan, Xiao, Cao, Zhu, Zhang, Zhen, & Qi, Bing. Quantum random number generation. United States. doi:10.1038/npjqi.2016.21.
Ma, Xiongfeng, Yuan, Xiao, Cao, Zhu, Zhang, Zhen, and Qi, Bing. 2016.
"Quantum random number generation". United States.
doi:10.1038/npjqi.2016.21. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1261542.
@article{osti_1261542,
title = {Quantum random number generation},
author = {Ma, Xiongfeng and Yuan, Xiao and Cao, Zhu and Zhang, Zhen and Qi, Bing},
abstractNote = {Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness  coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is selftesting QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semiselftesting QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.},
doi = {10.1038/npjqi.2016.21},
journal = {npj Quantum Information},
number = ,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
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