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Title: A Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) Non-Dispersive Absorption Sensor for Early Fire and Hazardous Gases Detection

 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. University of Central Florida, Orlando
  2. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center (FEERC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: 2016 Spring Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, Princeton, NJ, USA, 20160313, 20160313
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Thurmond, Kyle, Urso, Justin, Villar, Michael, Partridge Jr, William P, and Vasu, Subith S. A Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) Non-Dispersive Absorption Sensor for Early Fire and Hazardous Gases Detection. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Thurmond, Kyle, Urso, Justin, Villar, Michael, Partridge Jr, William P, & Vasu, Subith S. A Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) Non-Dispersive Absorption Sensor for Early Fire and Hazardous Gases Detection. United States.
Thurmond, Kyle, Urso, Justin, Villar, Michael, Partridge Jr, William P, and Vasu, Subith S. Sun . "A Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) Non-Dispersive Absorption Sensor for Early Fire and Hazardous Gases Detection". United States. doi:.
title = {A Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) Non-Dispersive Absorption Sensor for Early Fire and Hazardous Gases Detection},
author = {Thurmond, Kyle and Urso, Justin and Villar, Michael and Partridge Jr, William P and Vasu, Subith S},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}

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  • Here, a sensor was developed for simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) fluctuations in internal combustion engine exhaust gases. This sensor utilizes low-cost and compact light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that emit in the 3–5 µm wavelength range. An affordable, fast response sensor that can measure these gases has a broad application that can lead to more efficient, fuel-flexible engines and regulation of harmful emissions. Light emission from LEDs is spectrally broader and more spatially divergent when compared to that of lasers, which presented many design challenges. Optical design studies addressed some of the non-ideal characteristics ofmore » the LED emissions. Measurements of CO and CO 2 were conducted using their fundamental absorption bands centered at 4.7 µm and 4.3 µm, respectively, while a 3.6 µm reference LED was used to account for scattering losses (due to soot, window deposits, etc.) common to the three measurement LEDs. Instrument validation and calibration was performed using a laboratory flow cell and bottled-gas mixtures. The sensor was able to detect CO 2 and CO concentration changes as small as 30 ppm and 400 ppm, respectively. Because of the many control and monitor species with infra-red absorption features, which can be measured using the strategy described, this work demonstrates proof of concept for a wider range of fast (250 Hz) and low-cost sensors for gas measurement and process monitoring.« less
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  • Contaminants in coal gas can degrade the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. A laser diode sensor and a wavelength modulation spectrometer have been developed capable of detecting, in situ, HCl gas at ppM levels and below on time scales < 1 min, using 25 cm path lengths. Due to intensity and overlap of {sup 18}OCO with P10 transition of HCl, sensitivity is somewhat limited (close to 100 ppB, however) because of limited S/N ratios; this will be improved by eliminating all etalon effects. Alternative HCl lines with possibly reduced spectral interference will be looked for. Detection of H{sub 2}Smore » and H{sub 2}Se will also be investigated. It was found that room-temperature Li/K carbonate can be used as prefilter for HCl contaminants.« less
  • Streak cameras, either electronic or rotating mirror, are common diagnostic tools used to explore very fast phenomena. Often they are used to precisely time events or durations, and in most cases, it is important to have quality time marks on the film record. Many methods have been used to introduce time marks onto the film. Exploding bridge wires are frequently used, but they light up slowly and are difficult to read with consistent accuracy. It is also difficult to put more than a few bridge wires in the view of a camera slit, so there are only a few timingmore » marks written to the film. In some cases the time scale on the film must be interpolated over long distances, creating a significant loss of accuracy. Interpolation is especially troublesome with those cameras that have a nonlinear sweep rate. Spark gaps located on the camera slit turn on a bit faster, but suffer from the same interpolation induced errors. A series of short duration laser pulses, accurately timed and introduced along the edges of the film, is a very fine solution. The problem with such a laser fiducial system is that the lasers are very expensive and difficult to maintain. There has been a need for many years for an inexpensive, very bright light source that can be repetitively pulsed accurately and with short duration. Various technologies have sufficiently developed over the past few years, allowing us to build a fiducial system based on light emitting diodes (LED) for the Cordin rotating mirror streak cameras.« less
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