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Title: Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Abstract

A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygenmore » in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. In conclusion, the reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali and alkali earth metals (totaling ~2.8 wt% relative to the dry feedstock) which are catalytic and increase cracking reactions during pyrolysis.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1261100
Grant/Contract Number:
EE0003507
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
PLoS ONE
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher:
Public Library of Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Morgan, Trevor James, Turn, Scott Q., and George, Anthe. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136511.
Morgan, Trevor James, Turn, Scott Q., & George, Anthe. Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor. United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136511.
Morgan, Trevor James, Turn, Scott Q., and George, Anthe. 2015. "Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor". United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136511. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1261100.
@article{osti_1261100,
title = {Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor},
author = {Morgan, Trevor James and Turn, Scott Q. and George, Anthe},
abstractNote = {A reactor was designed and commissioned to study the fast pyrolysis behavior of banagrass as a function of temperature and volatiles residence time. Four temperatures between 400 and 600°C were examined as well as four residence times between ~1.0 and 10 seconds. Pyrolysis product distributions of bio-oil, char and permanent gases were determined at each reaction condition. The elemental composition of the bio-oils and chars was also assessed. The greatest bio-oil yield was recorded when working at 450°C with a volatiles residence time of 1.4 s, ~37 wt% relative to the dry ash free feedstock (excluding pyrolysis water). The amounts of char (organic fraction) and permanent gases under these conditions are ~4 wt% and 8 wt% respectively. The bio-oil yield stated above is for 'dry' bio-oil after rotary evaporation to remove solvent, which results in volatiles and pyrolysis water being removed from the bio-oil. The material removed during drying accounts for the remainder of the pyrolysis products. The 'dry' bio-oil produced under these conditions contains ~56 wt% carbon which is ~40 wt% of the carbon present in the feedstock. The oxygen content of the 450°C, 1.4 s 'dry' bio-oil is ~38 wt%, which accounts for ~33 wt% of the oxygen in the feedstock. At higher temperature or longer residence time less bio-oil and char is recovered and more gas and light volatiles are produced. Increasing the temperature has a more significant effect on product yields and composition than increasing the volatiles residence time. At 600°C and a volatiles residence time of 1.2 seconds the bio-oil yield is ~21 wt% of the daf feedstock, with a carbon content of 64 wt% of the bio-oil. The bio-oil yield from banagrass is significantly lower than from woody biomass or grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus, but is similar to barley straw. In conclusion, the reason for the low bio-oil yield from banagrass is thought to be related to its high ash content (8.5 wt% dry basis) and high concentration of alkali and alkali earth metals (totaling ~2.8 wt% relative to the dry feedstock) which are catalytic and increase cracking reactions during pyrolysis.},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0136511},
journal = {PLoS ONE},
number = 8,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 8
}

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