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Title: Thermoacoustic range verification using a clinical ultrasound array provides perfectly co-registered overlay of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1260428
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics in Medicine and Biology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 61; Journal Issue: 15; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2016-07-07 03:19:29; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9155
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Patch, S. K., Kireeff Covo, M., Jackson, A., Qadadha, Y. M., Campbell, K. S., Albright, R. A., Bloemhard, P., Donoghue, A. P., Siero, C. R., Gimpel, T. L., Small, S. M., Ninemire, B. F., Johnson, M. B., and Phair, L. Thermoacoustic range verification using a clinical ultrasound array provides perfectly co-registered overlay of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image. United Kingdom: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/61/15/5621.
Patch, S. K., Kireeff Covo, M., Jackson, A., Qadadha, Y. M., Campbell, K. S., Albright, R. A., Bloemhard, P., Donoghue, A. P., Siero, C. R., Gimpel, T. L., Small, S. M., Ninemire, B. F., Johnson, M. B., & Phair, L. Thermoacoustic range verification using a clinical ultrasound array provides perfectly co-registered overlay of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image. United Kingdom. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/61/15/5621.
Patch, S. K., Kireeff Covo, M., Jackson, A., Qadadha, Y. M., Campbell, K. S., Albright, R. A., Bloemhard, P., Donoghue, A. P., Siero, C. R., Gimpel, T. L., Small, S. M., Ninemire, B. F., Johnson, M. B., and Phair, L. 2016. "Thermoacoustic range verification using a clinical ultrasound array provides perfectly co-registered overlay of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image". United Kingdom. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/61/15/5621.
@article{osti_1260428,
title = {Thermoacoustic range verification using a clinical ultrasound array provides perfectly co-registered overlay of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image},
author = {Patch, S. K. and Kireeff Covo, M. and Jackson, A. and Qadadha, Y. M. and Campbell, K. S. and Albright, R. A. and Bloemhard, P. and Donoghue, A. P. and Siero, C. R. and Gimpel, T. L. and Small, S. M. and Ninemire, B. F. and Johnson, M. B. and Phair, L.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1088/0031-9155/61/15/5621},
journal = {Physics in Medicine and Biology},
number = 15,
volume = 61,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1088/0031-9155/61/15/5621

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • Purpose: The potential of particle therapy has not yet been fully realized due to inaccuracies in range verification. The purpose of this work was to correlate the Bragg peak location with target structure, by overlaying thermoacoustic localization of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image. Methods: Pulsed delivery of 50 MeV protons was accomplished by a fast chopper installed between the ion source and the inflector of the 88″ cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. 2 Gy were delivered in 2 µs by a beam with peak current of 2 µA. Thermoacoustic emissions were detected by a cardiac array andmore » Verasonics V1 ultrasound system, which also generated a grayscale ultrasound image. 1024 thermoacoustic pulses were averaged before filtering and one-way beamforming focused signal onto the Bragg peak location with perfect co-registration to the ultrasound images. Data was collected in a room temperature water bath and gelatin phantom with a cavity designed to mimic the intestine, in which gas pockets can displace the Bragg peak. Experiments were performed with the cavity both empty and filled with olive oil. Results: In the waterbath overlays of the Bragg peak agreed with Monte Carlo simulations to within 800±170 µm. Agreement within 1.3 ± 0.2 mm was achieved in the gelatin phantom, although relative stopping powers were estimated only to first order from CT scans. Protoacoustic signals were detected after travel from the Bragg peak through 29 mm and 65 mm of phantom material when the cavity was empty and full of olive oil, respectively. Conclusion: Protoacoustic range verification is feasible with a commercial clinical ultrasound array, but at doses exceeding the clinical realm. Further optimization of both transducer array and injection line chopper is required to enable range verification within a 2 Gy dose limit, which would enable online adaptive treatment. This work was supported in part by a UWM Intramural Instrumentation Grant and by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. YMQ was supported by a UWM-OUR summer fellowship.« less
  • Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams. Aim of this work is to study the feasibility of determining the ion range with sub-mm accuracy by use of high frequency ultrasonic (US) transducers and to image the Bragg peak by tomography. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity, length and repetition rate. The acoustic signal of singlemore » proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based US detectors (3.5 MHz and 10 MHz central frequencies). For tomography a 64 channel US detector array was used and moved along the ion track by a remotely controlled motor stage. Results: A clear signal of the Bragg peak was visible for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Range measurements were reproducible within +/− 20 micrometer and agreed well with Geant4 simulations. The tomographic reconstruction does not only allow to measure the ion range but also the beam spot size at the Bragg peak position. Conclusion: Range verification by acoustic means is a promising new technique for treatment modalities where the tumor can be localized by US imaging. Further improvement of sensitivity is required to account for higher attenuation of the US signal in tissue, as well as lower energy density in the Bragg peak in realistic treatment cases due to higher particle energy and larger spot sizes. Nevertheless, the acoustic range verification approach could offer the possibility of combining anatomical US imaging with Bragg Peak imaging in the near future. The work was funded by the DFG cluster of excellence Munich Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)« less
  • Purpose: To introduce a novel method for monitoring tumor location during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) while the treatment beam is on by using a conventional electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods and Materials: In our clinic, selected patients were treated under a phase I institutional review board-approved SBRT protocol for limited hepatic metastases from solid tumors. Before treatment planning multiple gold fiducial markers were implanted on the periphery of the tumor. During treatment the EPID was used in cine mode to collect the exit radiation and produce a sequence of images for each field. An in-house program was developed formore » calculating the location of the fiducials and their relative distance to the planned locations. Results: Three case studies illustrate the utility of the technique. Patient A exhibited a systematic shift of 4 mm during one of the treatment beams. Patient B showed an inferior drift of the target of approximately 1 cm from the time of setup to the end of the fraction. Patient C had a poor setup on the first day of treatment that was quantified and accounted for on subsequent treatment days. Conclusions: Target localization throughout each treatment beam can be quickly assessed with the presented technique. Treatment monitoring with an EPID in cine mode is shown to be a clinically feasible and useful tool.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate on-board digital tomosynthesis (DTS) for patient positioning vs. two-dimensional (2D) radiography and three-dimensional cone beam (CBCT). Methods and Materials: A total of 92 image sessions from 9 prostate cancer patients were analyzed. An on-board image set was registered to a corresponding reference image set. Four pairs of image sets were used: digitally reconstructed radiographs vs. on-board orthogonal paired radiographs for the 2D method, coronal-reference DTS vs. on-board coronal DTS for the coronal-DTS method, sagittal-reference DTS vs. on-board sagittal DTS for the sagittal-DTS method, and planning CT vs. CBCT for the CBCT method. The registration results were compared.more » Results: The systematic errors in all methods were <1 mm/1{sup o}. When registering the bony anatomy, the mean vector difference was 0.21 {+-} 0.11 cm between 2D and CBCT, 0.11 {+-} 0.08 cm between CBCT and coronal DTS, and 0.14 {+-} 0.07 cm between CBCT and sagittal DTS. The correlation between CBCT to DTS was stronger (coefficient = 0.92-0.95) than the correlation between 2D and CBCT or DTS (coefficient = 0.81-0.83). When registering the soft tissue, the mean vector difference was 0.18 {+-} 0.11 cm between CBCT and coronal DTS and 0.29 {+-} 0.17 cm between CBCT and sagittal DTS. The correlation coefficient of CBCT to sagittal DTS and to coronal DTS was 0.84 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion: DTS could provide equivalent results to CBCT when the bony anatomy is used as landmarks for prostate image-guided radiotherapy. For soft tissue-based positioning verification, coronal DTS produced equivalent results to CBCT, but sagittal DTS alone was insufficient. DTS could allow for comparable soft tissue-based target localization with faster scanning time and a lower imaging dose compared with CBCT.« less
  • We experimentally verified that a microplasma assembly can create a functional dielectric layer for the propagation of electromagnetic waves as a ''plasma photonic crystal.'' A two-dimensional array in a square lattice was composed of columnar plasmas of about 2 mm in diameter, and the transmitted microwaves at 70-75 GHz showed a change of energy flow direction. This result is attributed to the fact that periodical structure is composed of individual plasma columns with a different dispersion than the ambient part and the experimental frequency range lies in the vicinity of the lowest band gap of the photonic crystal calculated theoretically.