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Title: Decoupling indirect topographic cross-talk in band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy imaging and spectroscopy

Abstract

Here, all scanning probe microscopies are subjected to topographic cross-talk, meaning the topography-related contrast in functional images. Here, we investigate the signatures of indirect topographic cross-talk in piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) imaging and spectroscopy and its decoupling using band excitation (BE) method in ferroelectric BaTiO 3 deposited on the Si substrates with free standing nanopillars of diameter 50 nm. Comparison between the single-frequency PFM and BE-PFM results shows that the measured signal can be significantly distorted by topography-induced shifts in the contact resonance frequency and cantilever transfer function. However, with proper correction, such shifts do not affect PFM imaging and hysteresis loop measurements. This suggests the necessity of an advanced approach, such as BE-PFM, for detection of intrinsic sample piezoresponse on the topographically non-uniform surfaces.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Univ. de Lyon (France)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Innovations for High Performance Microelectronics (IHP), Frankfurt (Germany)
  4. Univ. de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1259425
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 108; Journal Issue: 25; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; atomic force microscopy; etching; mechanical properties; topography; nanostructures

Citation Formats

Mazet, Lucie, Jesse, Stephen, Niu, Gang, Schroeder, Thomas, Schamm-Chardon, Sylvie, Dubourdieu, Catherine, Baddorf, Arthur P., Kalinin, Sergei V., Yang, Sang Mo, and Okatan, M. Baris. Decoupling indirect topographic cross-talk in band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy imaging and spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4954276.
Mazet, Lucie, Jesse, Stephen, Niu, Gang, Schroeder, Thomas, Schamm-Chardon, Sylvie, Dubourdieu, Catherine, Baddorf, Arthur P., Kalinin, Sergei V., Yang, Sang Mo, & Okatan, M. Baris. Decoupling indirect topographic cross-talk in band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy imaging and spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954276.
Mazet, Lucie, Jesse, Stephen, Niu, Gang, Schroeder, Thomas, Schamm-Chardon, Sylvie, Dubourdieu, Catherine, Baddorf, Arthur P., Kalinin, Sergei V., Yang, Sang Mo, and Okatan, M. Baris. 2016. "Decoupling indirect topographic cross-talk in band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy imaging and spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954276. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1259425.
@article{osti_1259425,
title = {Decoupling indirect topographic cross-talk in band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy imaging and spectroscopy},
author = {Mazet, Lucie and Jesse, Stephen and Niu, Gang and Schroeder, Thomas and Schamm-Chardon, Sylvie and Dubourdieu, Catherine and Baddorf, Arthur P. and Kalinin, Sergei V. and Yang, Sang Mo and Okatan, M. Baris},
abstractNote = {Here, all scanning probe microscopies are subjected to topographic cross-talk, meaning the topography-related contrast in functional images. Here, we investigate the signatures of indirect topographic cross-talk in piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) imaging and spectroscopy and its decoupling using band excitation (BE) method in ferroelectric BaTiO3 deposited on the Si substrates with free standing nanopillars of diameter 50 nm. Comparison between the single-frequency PFM and BE-PFM results shows that the measured signal can be significantly distorted by topography-induced shifts in the contact resonance frequency and cantilever transfer function. However, with proper correction, such shifts do not affect PFM imaging and hysteresis loop measurements. This suggests the necessity of an advanced approach, such as BE-PFM, for detection of intrinsic sample piezoresponse on the topographically non-uniform surfaces.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4954276},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 25,
volume = 108,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

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  • Probing materials functionality locally by scanning probe microscopy requires reliable framework for identifying the target signal and separating it from the effects of surface morphology and instrument non-idealities, i.e. instrumental and topographical cross-talk. Here we develop the linear resolution theory framework to describe the cross-talk effects, and apply it for elucidation of frequency dependent cross-talk mechanisms in the Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. The use of band excitation method allows electromechanical/electrical and mechanical/topographic signals to be unambiguously separated. The applicability of functional fit approach and multivariate statistical analysis methods for data identification in band excitation SPM is explored.
  • Band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy enables local investigation of the nonlinear piezoelectric behavior of ferroelectric thin films. However, the presence of additional nonlinearity associated with the dynamic resonant response of the tip-surface junction can complicate the study of a material s nonlinearity. Here, the relative importance of the two non-linearity sources was examined as a function of the excitation function. It was found that in order to minimize the effects of nonlinear tip-surface interactions but achieve good signal to noise level, an optimal excitation function must be used.
  • In scanning near-field optical microscopy the sample topography may have a strong effect on the optical image signal. This cross talk has been investigated in subwavelength-periodically patterned thin-film structures using a reflection-mode near-field optical microscope. A comparison between measured and simulated line scans shows that far-field light waves emitted from the tip aperture play a major role in the imaging process.{copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
  • The advancement of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform demonstrating for the first time co-registered topographical, band excitation nanomechanical, and mass spectral imaging of a surface using a single instrument is reported. The mass spectrometry-based chemical imaging component of the system utilized nanothermal analysis probes for pyrolytic surface sampling followed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the gas phase species produced with subsequent mass analysis. We discuss the basic instrumental setup and operation and the multimodal imaging capability and utility are demonstrated using a phase separated polystyrene/poly(2-vinylpyridine) polymer blend thin film. The topography and band excitation images showedmore » that the valley and plateau regions of the thin film surface were comprised primarily of one of the two polymers in the blend with the mass spectral chemical image used to definitively identify the polymers at the different locations. Data point pixel size for the topography (390 nm x 390 nm), band excitation (781 nm x 781 nm), mass spectrometry (690 nm x 500 nm) images was comparable and submicrometer in all three cases, but the data voxel size for each of the three images was dramatically different. The topography image was uniquely a surface measurement, whereas the band excitation image included information from an estimated 10 nm deep into the sample and the mass spectral image from 110-140 nm in depth. Moreover, because of this dramatic sampling depth variance, some differences in the band excitation and mass spectrometry chemical images were observed and were interpreted to indicate the presence of a buried interface in the sample. The spatial resolution of the mass spectral image was estimated to be between 1.5 m 2.6 m, based on the ability to distinguish surface features in that image that were also observed in the other images.« less
  • Here we introduce angle-resolved piezoresponse force microscopy (AR-PFM), whereby the sample is rotated by 30{sup o} increments around the surface normal vector and the in-plane PFM phase signals are collected at each angle. We obtained the AR-PFM images of BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal and cube-on-cube epitaxial (001) BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin film on SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} substrate, and confirmed that the AR-PFM provides more unambiguous information on the in-plane polarization directions than the conventional PFM method. Moreover, we found eight additional in-plane polarization variants in epitaxial BFO thin films, which are formed to mitigate highly unstable charged domain boundaries.