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Title: The landscape of cytokinin binding by a plant nodulin

; ; ;  [1]
  1. Polish
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Acta Crystallographica. Section D. Structural Biology; Journal Volume: 69; Journal Issue: 12
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Ruszkowski, M., Szpotkowski, K., Sikorski, M., and Jaskolski, M. The landscape of cytokinin binding by a plant nodulin. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1107/S0907444913021975.
Ruszkowski, M., Szpotkowski, K., Sikorski, M., & Jaskolski, M. The landscape of cytokinin binding by a plant nodulin. United States. doi:10.1107/S0907444913021975.
Ruszkowski, M., Szpotkowski, K., Sikorski, M., and Jaskolski, M. 2016. "The landscape of cytokinin binding by a plant nodulin". United States. doi:10.1107/S0907444913021975.
title = {The landscape of cytokinin binding by a plant nodulin},
author = {Ruszkowski, M. and Szpotkowski, K. and Sikorski, M. and Jaskolski, M.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1107/S0907444913021975},
journal = {Acta Crystallographica. Section D. Structural Biology},
number = 12,
volume = 69,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
  • The crystal structures of complexes of M. truncatula nodulin 13 with four cytokinins, trans-zeatin, N{sup 6}-isopentenyladenine, kinetin and N{sup 6}-benzyladenine, show an unusual mode of dimerization of this PR-10-fold plant protein. The cytokinin-binding mode in the internal cavity of the protein is the same in each complex and resembles the pattern found in the cytokinin receptor protein. Nodulation is an extraordinary symbiotic interaction between leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) that assimilate atmospheric nitrogen (in root nodules) and convert it into compounds suitable for the plant host. A class of plant hormones called cytokinins are involved in the nodulation process.more » In the model legume Medicago truncatula, nodulin 13 (MtN13), which belongs to the pathogenesis-related proteins of class 10 (PR-10), is expressed in the outer cortex of the nodules. In general, PR-10 proteins are small and monomeric and have a characteristic fold with an internal hydrophobic cavity formed between a seven-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and a C-terminal α-helix. Previously, some PR-10 proteins not related to nodulation were found to bind cytokinins such as trans-zeatin. Here, four crystal structures of the MtN13 protein are reported in complexes with several cytokinins, namely trans-zeatin, N{sup 6}-isopentenyladenine, kinetin and N{sup 6}-benzyladenine. All four phytohormones are bound in the hydrophobic cavity in the same manner and have excellent definition in the electron-density maps. The binding of the cytokinins appears to be strong and specific and is reinforced by several hydrogen bonds. Although the binding stoichiometry is 1:1, the complex is actually dimeric, with a cytokinin molecule bound in each subunit. The ligand-binding site in each cavity is formed with the participation of a loop element from the other subunit, which plugs the only entrance to the cavity. Interestingly, a homodimer of MtN13 is also formed in solution, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)« less
  • A wheat embryo cytokinin-binding protein was covalently modified with the radiolabeled photoaffinity ligand 2-azido-N{sup 6}-({sup 14}C)benzyladenine. A single labeled peptide was obtained after proteolytic digestion and isolation by reversed-phase and anion-exchange HPLC. Sequencing by classical Edman degradation identified 11 of the 12 residues but failed to identify the labeled amino acid. Analysis by laser photodissociation Fourier-transform mass spectrometry of 10 pmol of the peptide independently confirmed the Edman data and also demonstrated that the histidine residue nearest the C terminus (underlined) was modified by the reagent in the sequence Ala-Phe-Leu-Gln-Pro-Ser-His-His{und His}-Asp-Ala-Asp-Glu.
  • Nodulin-35, a 35,000-molecular-weight protein, is present in soybean root nodules developed by different strains of Rhizobium japonicum, irrespective of their effectivveness in fixing atmospheric nitrogen. This protein is not detected in uninfected plants and bacteroids or in free-living Rhizobium and appears to be synthesized by the plant during the formation of root nodules.
  • We have isolated a Lotus japonicus cDNA corresponding to a highly abundant, late nodule-specific RNA species that encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.6 kD. The protein and its corresponding gene were designated NIj16 and LjNOD16, respectively. LjNOD16 was found to be expressed only in the infected cells of L. japonicus nodules. Related DNA sequences could be identified in the genomes of both Glycine max and Medicago sativa. In the latter, a homologous mRNA species was detected in the nodules. Unlike LiNOD16, its alfalfa homologs appear to represent low-abundance mRNA species. However, the proteins corresponding to themore » LjNOD16 and its alfalfa homolog could be detected at similar levels in nodules but not in roots of both legume species. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis of nodulin NIj16 revealed the presence of a long {alpha}-helical region and a positively charged C terminus. The former domain has a very high propensity to form a coiled-coil type structure, indicating that nodulin NIj16 may interact with an as-yet-unidentified protein target(s) in the nodule-infected cells. Homology searches revealed no significant similarities to any known sequences in the databases, with the exception of two related, anonymous Arabidopsis expressed sequence tags.« less
  • The three-dimensional models built for the Nod26-like aquaporins all exhibit the typical {alpha}-helical fold of other aquaporins containing the two ar/R and NPA constriction filters along the central water channel. Besides these structural homologies, they readily differ with respect to the amino acid residues forming the ar/R selective filter. According to these discrepancies in both the hydrophilicity and pore size of the ar/R filter, Nod26-like aquaporins can be distributed in three subgroups corresponding to NIP-1, NIP-II and a third subgroup of Nod26-like aquaporins exhibiting a highly hydrophilic and widely open filter. However, all Nod26-like aquaporins display a bipartite distribution ofmore » electrostatic charges along the water channel with an electropositive extracellular vestibular portion followed by an electronegative cytosolic vestibular portion. The specific transport of water, non-ionic solutes (glycerol, urea, ammoniac), ions (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and gas (NH{sub 3}) across the Nod26-like obviously depends on the electrostatic and conformational properties of their central water channel.« less