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Title: Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

Abstract

An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

Inventors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
COATES ENGINEERING, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1258019
Patent Number(s):
9,371,486
Application Number:
13/565,664
Assignee:
COATES ENGINEERING, LLC (Salt Lake City, UT) CHO
DOE Contract Number:
FG02-08ER84951
Resource Type:
Patent
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2012 Aug 02
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT

Citation Formats

Coates, Ralph L, Smoot, Douglas L., and Hatfield, Kent E. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Coates, Ralph L, Smoot, Douglas L., & Hatfield, Kent E. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns. United States.
Coates, Ralph L, Smoot, Douglas L., and Hatfield, Kent E. 2016. "Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1258019.
@article{osti_1258019,
title = {Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns},
author = {Coates, Ralph L and Smoot, Douglas L. and Hatfield, Kent E},
abstractNote = {An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

Patent:

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  • An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internallymore » by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.« less
  • This patent describes a heat exchange apparatus for use in a rotary kiln, the heat exchange apparatus comprising: refractory means for transferring heat from an upper heated portion of a rotary kiln above a bed disposed in a lower portion to within the bed as the rotary kiln is rotated. The refractory means comprises: tubular refractory members; means for attaching the refractory means in a spaced apart relationship with an interior wall of the rotary kiln in order to cause the refractory means to pass through the bed with a portion of the bed passing under the refractory means. Amore » portion of the bed passes over the refractory means in order to enhance heat transfer as the rotary kiln is rotated. The means for attaching the refractory means comprises rods supported by stanchions and tubular refractory member disposed on the rods; the means for attaching the refractory means and the refractory means is configured and operative for stirring the bed as the refractory means pass through the bed without significant lifting of the bed to the heated upper portions of the rotary kiln as the rotary kiln is rotated; and compressible refractory spacer means disposed between each tubular refractory member for accommodating heat expansion and compressible refractory sleeve means dispersed between the rods and the tubular refractory members for accommodating heat expansion of the rods. Compressible refractory sleeve means and tubular refractory member sized so that the tubular refractory members are tightly held against the tubular refractory spacer means when the rotary kiln is at operating temperatures in order to inhibit fracture of the tubular refractory member as they pass through the bed.« less
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  • A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array ismore » delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load.« less
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