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Title: Primordial Black Holes: Observational characteristics of the final evaporation

Abstract

For many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to 105 solar masses or higher depending on the size of the universe at formation. A Black Hole (BH) has a Hawking temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will quasi-thermally radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate as emission lowers its mass and raises its temperature. Moreover, the final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive and its description is dependent on the particle physics model. In this work we investigate the final few seconds of BH evaporation, using the Standard Model and incorporating the most recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) results, and provide a new parameterization for the instantaneous emission spectrum. We calculate for the first time energy-dependent PBH burst light curves in the GeV/TeV energy range. Moreover, we explore PBH burst search methods and potential observational PBH burst signatures. We have found a unique signature in the PBH burst light curves that may be detectable by GeV/TeV gamma-ray observatories such as the High Altitude Water Cerenkov (HAWC) observatory. Finally, the implications of beyond the Standard Model theories on themore » PBH burst observational characteristics are also discussed, including potential sensitivity of the instantaneous photon detection rate to a squark threshold in the 5–10 TeV range.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  3. Univ. of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1257975
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-15-23058
Journal ID: ISSN 0927-6505; PII: S092765051630041X
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astroparticle Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 80; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0927-6505
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Primordial Black Holes; HAWC; Very high energy bursts; Gamma-ray bursts

Citation Formats

Ukwatta, T. N., Stump, D. R., Linnemann, J. T., MacGibbon, J. H., Marinelli, S. S., Yapici, T., and Tollefson, K. Primordial Black Holes: Observational characteristics of the final evaporation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2016.03.007.
Ukwatta, T. N., Stump, D. R., Linnemann, J. T., MacGibbon, J. H., Marinelli, S. S., Yapici, T., & Tollefson, K. Primordial Black Holes: Observational characteristics of the final evaporation. United States. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2016.03.007.
Ukwatta, T. N., Stump, D. R., Linnemann, J. T., MacGibbon, J. H., Marinelli, S. S., Yapici, T., and Tollefson, K. 2016. "Primordial Black Holes: Observational characteristics of the final evaporation". United States. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2016.03.007. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1257975.
@article{osti_1257975,
title = {Primordial Black Holes: Observational characteristics of the final evaporation},
author = {Ukwatta, T. N. and Stump, D. R. and Linnemann, J. T. and MacGibbon, J. H. and Marinelli, S. S. and Yapici, T. and Tollefson, K.},
abstractNote = {For many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to 105 solar masses or higher depending on the size of the universe at formation. A Black Hole (BH) has a Hawking temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will quasi-thermally radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate as emission lowers its mass and raises its temperature. Moreover, the final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive and its description is dependent on the particle physics model. In this work we investigate the final few seconds of BH evaporation, using the Standard Model and incorporating the most recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) results, and provide a new parameterization for the instantaneous emission spectrum. We calculate for the first time energy-dependent PBH burst light curves in the GeV/TeV energy range. Moreover, we explore PBH burst search methods and potential observational PBH burst signatures. We have found a unique signature in the PBH burst light curves that may be detectable by GeV/TeV gamma-ray observatories such as the High Altitude Water Cerenkov (HAWC) observatory. Finally, the implications of beyond the Standard Model theories on the PBH burst observational characteristics are also discussed, including potential sensitivity of the instantaneous photon detection rate to a squark threshold in the 5–10 TeV range.},
doi = {10.1016/j.astropartphys.2016.03.007},
journal = {Astroparticle Physics},
number = C,
volume = 80,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

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  • It was suggested by several authors that hypothetical primordial black holes (PBHs) may contribute to the dark matter (DM) in our Galaxy. There are strong constraints based on the Hawking evaporation that practically exclude PBHs with masses m{sub pbh} approx 10{sup 15}to10{sup 16} g and smaller as significant contributors to the Galactic DM. Similarly, PBHs with masses greater than about 10{sup 26} g are practically excluded by the gravitational lensing observation. The mass range between 10{sup 16} g <m{sub pbh} < 10{sup 26} g is unconstrained. In this paper, we examine possible observational signatures in the unexplored mass range, investigatingmore » hypothetical collisions of PBHs with main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars in our Galaxy. This has previously been discussed as possibly leading to an observable photon eruption due to shock production during the encounter. We find that such collisions are either too rare to be observed (if the PBH masses are typically larger than about 10{sup 20} g), or produce too little power to be detected (if the masses are smaller than about 10{sup 20} g).« less
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