skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

Abstract

ABSTRACT During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential. IMPORTANCEThe H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report amore » molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
OTHER
OSTI Identifier:
1257478
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Virology; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 12
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH

Citation Formats

Yang, Hua, Carney, Paul J., Mishin, Vasiliy P., Guo, Zhu, Chang, Jessie C., Wentworth, David E., Gubareva, Larisa V., Stevens, James, and Schultz-Cherry, S. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1128/JVI.00180-16.
Yang, Hua, Carney, Paul J., Mishin, Vasiliy P., Guo, Zhu, Chang, Jessie C., Wentworth, David E., Gubareva, Larisa V., Stevens, James, & Schultz-Cherry, S. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses. United States. doi:10.1128/JVI.00180-16.
Yang, Hua, Carney, Paul J., Mishin, Vasiliy P., Guo, Zhu, Chang, Jessie C., Wentworth, David E., Gubareva, Larisa V., Stevens, James, and Schultz-Cherry, S. Wed . "Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses". United States. doi:10.1128/JVI.00180-16.
@article{osti_1257478,
title = {Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses},
author = {Yang, Hua and Carney, Paul J. and Mishin, Vasiliy P. and Guo, Zhu and Chang, Jessie C. and Wentworth, David E. and Gubareva, Larisa V. and Stevens, James and Schultz-Cherry, S.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential. IMPORTANCEThe H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report a molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment.},
doi = {10.1128/JVI.00180-16},
journal = {Journal of Virology},
number = 12,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 06 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Apr 06 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype are widely spread in avian species. The viruses have recently been transmitted to mammalian species, including humans, accelerating the efforts to devise protective strategies against them. In this study, an avian influenza H9N2 virus strain (A/Chicken/Jiangsu/7/2002), isolated in Jiangsu Province, China, was used to infect BALB/c mice for adaptation. After five lung-to-lung passages, the virus was stably proliferated in a large quantity in the murine lung and caused the deaths of mice. In addition, we explored the protection induced by H9N2 virus hemagglutinin (HA)- and neuraminidase (NA)-expressing DNAs in BALB/c mice. Female BALB/c micemore » aged 6-8 weeks were immunized once or twice at a 3-week interval with HA-DNA and NA-DNA by electroporation, respectively, each at a dose of 3, 10 or 30 {mu}g. The mice were challenged with a lethal dose (40x LD{sub 5}) of influenza H9N2 virus four weeks after immunization once or one week after immunization twice. The protections of DNA vaccines were evaluated by the serum antibody titers, residual lung virus titers, and survival rates of the mice. The result showed that immunization once with not less than 10 {mu}g or twice with 3 {mu}g HA-DNA or NA-DNA provided effective protection against homologous avian influenza H9N2 virus.« less
  • Highlights: • A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. • The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. • The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). • The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. • Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutininmore » (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.« less
  • The interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) and receptors is a kernel in the study of evolution and host adaptation of H1N1 influenza A viruses. The notion that the avian HA is associated with preferential specificity for receptors with Sia{alpha}2,3Gal glycosidic linkage over those with Sia{alpha}2,6Gal linkage is not all consistent with the available data on H1N1 viruses. By x-ray crystallography, the HA structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as its complexes with the receptor analogs, was determined. The structures revealed no preferential binding of avian receptor analogs over that of the human analog, suggesting that the HA/receptormore » binding might not be as stringent as is commonly believed in determining the host receptor preference for some subtypes of influenza viruses, such as the H1N1 viruses. The structure also showed difference in glycosylation despite the preservation of related sequences, which may partly contribute to the difference between structures of human and avian origin.« less