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Title: Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans

Abstract

Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging at low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were testedmore » for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1256773
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1263852
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2198-0926
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; aberration-corrected STEM; scan control; distortion; spiral scan

Citation Formats

Lupini, Andrew R., Borisevich, Albina Y., Kalinin, Sergei V., Endeve, Eirik, Archibald, Richard K., Jesse, Stephen, Sang, Xihan, Unocic, Raymond R., and Chi, Miaofang. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1186/s40679-016-0020-3.
Lupini, Andrew R., Borisevich, Albina Y., Kalinin, Sergei V., Endeve, Eirik, Archibald, Richard K., Jesse, Stephen, Sang, Xihan, Unocic, Raymond R., & Chi, Miaofang. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans. United States. doi:10.1186/s40679-016-0020-3.
Lupini, Andrew R., Borisevich, Albina Y., Kalinin, Sergei V., Endeve, Eirik, Archibald, Richard K., Jesse, Stephen, Sang, Xihan, Unocic, Raymond R., and Chi, Miaofang. Mon . "Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans". United States. doi:10.1186/s40679-016-0020-3.
@article{osti_1256773,
title = {Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans},
author = {Lupini, Andrew R. and Borisevich, Albina Y. and Kalinin, Sergei V. and Endeve, Eirik and Archibald, Richard K. and Jesse, Stephen and Sang, Xihan and Unocic, Raymond R. and Chi, Miaofang},
abstractNote = {Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging at low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.},
doi = {10.1186/s40679-016-0020-3},
journal = {Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging},
number = 1,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 13 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Jun 13 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1186/s40679-016-0020-3

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  • Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging atmore » low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less
  • Purpose: Two separate low-dose CT scans are usually performed for attenuation correction of rest and stress N-13 ammonia PET/CT myocardial perfusion imaging (PET/CT). We utilize an automatic exposure control (AEC) technique to reduce CT radiation dose while maintaining perfusion image quality. Our goal is to assess the reproducibility of displayed CT dose index (CTDI) on same-day repeat CT scans (CT1 and CT2). Methods: Retrospectively, we reviewed CT images of PET/CT studies performed on the same day. Low-dose CT utilized AEC technique based on tube current modulation called Smart-mA. The scan parameters were 64 × 0.625mm collimation, 5mm slice thickness, 0.984more » pitch, 1-sec rotation time, 120 kVp, and noise index 50 with a range of 10–200 mA. The scan length matched with PET field of view (FOV) with the heart near the middle of axial FOV. We identified the reference slice number (RS) for an anatomical landmark (carina) and used it to estimate axial shift between two CTs. For patient size, we measured an effective diameter on the reference slice. The effect of patient positioning to CTDI was evaluated using the table height. We calculated the absolute percent difference of the CTDI (%diff) for estimation of the reproducibility. Results: The study included 168 adults with an average body-mass index of 31.72 ± 9.10 (kg/m{sup 2}) and effective diameter was 32.72 ± 4.60 cm. The average CTDI was 1.95 ± 1.40 mGy for CT1 and 1.97 ± 1.42mGy for CT2. The mean %diff was 7.8 ± 6.8%. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the table height and %diff CTDI. (r=0.82, p<0.001) Conclusion: We have shown for the first time in human subjects, using two same-day CT images, that the AEC technique in low-dose CT is reproducible within 10% and significantly depends on the patient centering.« less
  • There is widespread acceptance of the thesis that in a patient with suspected embolism, a normal perfusion lung scan excludes the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. However, limited published data exist which validate this thesis. We have explored this question by longitudinal follow-up of 68 patients who were referred for lung scanning to rule out embolism and proved to have normal perfusion lung scans. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism among these patients were similar to those reported in prior series of patients with pulmonary embolism. Our data support the widely-held views that: 1) a normal perfusion lung scan excludes themore » diagnosis of clinically significant pulmonary emboli; 2) the diagnostic work-up for suspected pulmonary embolism need not extend beyond a normal perfusion scan; 3) anticoagulant therapy can be discontinued after a normal perfusion scan, except in the presence of documented venous thrombosis; and 4) a normal lung scan has the same value in ruling out embolism in man as does a normal pulmonary angiogram.« less
  • The usual time interval between the administration of technetium-labeled bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals and imaging varies among nuclear-medical departments. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that the interval could be as short as 2 hr. We have studied overall quality of bone detail in 280 bone scans performed at intervals varying from 2 to 5 hr following injection of technetium-99m diphosphonate. No significant qualitative difference was found between the studies performed at 2 hr and those done at later intervals.
  • Purpose: Four-dimensional (4D) respiration-correlated imaging techniques can be used to obtain (respiration) artifact-free computed tomography (CT) images of the thorax. Current radiotherapy planning systems, however, do not accommodate 4D-CT data. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, new concept to incorporate patient-specific motion information, using 4D-CT scans, in the radiotherapy planning process of lung cancer patients to enable smaller error margins. Methods and Materials: A single CT scan was selected from the 4D-CT data set. This scan represented the tumor in its time-averaged position over the respiratory cycle (the mid-ventilation CT scan). To select the appropriate CTmore » scan, two methods were used. First, the three-dimensional tumor motion was analyzed semiautomatically to calculate the mean tumor position and the corresponding respiration phase. An alternative automated method was developed to select the correct CT scan using the diaphragm motion. Results: Owing to hysteresis, mid-ventilation selection using the three-dimensional tumor motion had a tumor position accuracy (with respect to the mean tumor position) better than 1.1 {+-} 1.1 mm for all three directions (inhalation and exhalation). The accuracy in the diaphragm motion method was better than 1.1 {+-} 1.1 mm. Conventional free-breathing CT scanning had an accuracy better than 0 {+-} 3.9 mm. The mid-ventilation concept can result in an average irradiated volume reduction of 20% for tumors with a diameter of 40 mm. Conclusion: Tumor motion and the diaphragm motion method can be used to select the (artifact-free) mid-ventilation CT scan, enabling a significant reduction of the irradiated volume.« less