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Title: Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

Abstract

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model - an agent-based simulation modeling platform - was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ~10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of $4.4 M (or $ 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploymore » than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Transportation Engineering ; Schatz Energy Research Center Humboldt State Univ., St. Arcata, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Schatz Energy Research Center Humboldt State Univ., St. Arcata, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1256531
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1379392
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-9326
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; electric vehicle charging infrastructure; electric vehicles; sustainable transportation; alternative fuels; agent-based modeling; India

Citation Formats

Sheppard, Colin J. R., Gopal, Anand R., Harris, Andrew, and Jacobson, Arne. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/6/064010.
Sheppard, Colin J. R., Gopal, Anand R., Harris, Andrew, & Jacobson, Arne. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi. United States. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/6/064010.
Sheppard, Colin J. R., Gopal, Anand R., Harris, Andrew, and Jacobson, Arne. Fri . "Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi". United States. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/6/064010.
@article{osti_1256531,
title = {Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi},
author = {Sheppard, Colin J. R. and Gopal, Anand R. and Harris, Andrew and Jacobson, Arne},
abstractNote = {Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model - an agent-based simulation modeling platform - was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ~10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of $4.4 M (or $ 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.},
doi = {10.1088/1748-9326/11/6/064010},
journal = {Environmental Research Letters},
number = 6,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 10 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Jun 10 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1088/1748-9326/11/6/064010

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
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  • Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model - an agent-basedmore » simulation modeling platform - was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ~10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of $4.4 M (or $ 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.« less
  • In this study we explore two charging management schemes for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The PHEV drivers and the government were stakeholders who might have preferred different charging control strategies. For the former, a proposed controlled charging scheme minimized the operational cost during PHEV charge-depleting and sustaining modes. For the latter, the research minimized monetized carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation for the PHEVs charging, as well as tailpipe emissions for the portion of PHEV trips fueled by gasoline. Hourly driving patterns and electricity data were leveraged. Both were representative of each of the eight North American Electric Reliabilitymore » Corporation regions to examine the results of the proposed schemes. The model accounted for drivers' activity patterns and charging availability spatial and temporal heterogeneity. The optimal charging profiles confirmed the differing nature of the objectives of PHEV drivers and the government; cost-effective charge should occur early in the morning, while ecofriendly charge should be late in the afternoon. Each control's trade-offs between operation cost and emission savings are discussed for each North American Electric Reliability Corporation region. The availability of workplace and public charging was found to affect the optimal charging profiles greatly. Charging control is more efficient for drivers and government when PHEVs have greater electric range.« less
  • The emission reduction benefits of EVs are dependent on the time and location of charging. An analysis of battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles under four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles shows that CO2 emissions are highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix. Availability of workplace charging generally results in lower emissions, while restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions.