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Title: Atomic layer deposition for aligned growth of and conformal deposition onto double and triple walled carbon nanotubes

Abstract

We present our work on the growth and functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A significant challenge in the growth of aligned single, double and triple walled nanotubes is in the deposition of a controlled thickness catalyst layer. Conventional techniques using line of sight deposition such as sputtering and evaporation produce uniform catalyst layers only when extreme care is taken in the placement of flat substrates. Growth of aligned low wall number carbon nanotubes on contoured, complex geometry, or large surface area substrates is simply not technically feasible through these techniques. Using iron atomic layer deposition (ALD) with ferrocene and oxygen precursors for catalyst deposition circumvents the line of sight problems and allows for uniform coverage across almost all substrates. Furthermore the ALD technique allows for extremely accurate and reproducible thickness depositions. Using these ALD catalyst layers reproducible aligned arrays consisting of primarily double and triple wall CNTS can be fabricated. Conformal coatings onto high aspect ratio surfaces are particularly challenging. The walls of single carbon nanotubes in a nanotube array are inaccessible by line of sight techniques. ALD circumvents this problem by relying on a gas-surface reaction to initiate growth. Generally, growth of ALD films on CNTs results in beadingmore » of the deposited materials around CNT defects. This is particularly true of high surface energy materials. The number of nucleation sites and the onset of growth of Pt by ALD can be tuned by use of Ar plasma, O 2 plasma and chemical functionalization.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
OSTI Identifier:
1256209
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-520-49774
Journal ID: ISSN 0277-786X
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7761; Related Information: Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Associated Devices III: Proceedings of SPIE Conference, 1-2 and 4 August 2010, San Diego, California; Journal ID: ISSN 0277-786X
Publisher:
SPIE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; aligned carbon nanotubes; atomic layer deposition; platinum; iron; fuel cells; catalysts

Citation Formats

Dameron, A., Pribat, Didier, Lee, Young-Hee, Bult, J., Pylypenko, S., Razeghi, Manijeh, Engtrakul, C., Bochert, C., Chen, L., Leong, J., Frisco, S., Simpson, L., Dinh, H., and Pivovar, B. Atomic layer deposition for aligned growth of and conformal deposition onto double and triple walled carbon nanotubes. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1117/12.861090.
Dameron, A., Pribat, Didier, Lee, Young-Hee, Bult, J., Pylypenko, S., Razeghi, Manijeh, Engtrakul, C., Bochert, C., Chen, L., Leong, J., Frisco, S., Simpson, L., Dinh, H., & Pivovar, B. Atomic layer deposition for aligned growth of and conformal deposition onto double and triple walled carbon nanotubes. United States. doi:10.1117/12.861090.
Dameron, A., Pribat, Didier, Lee, Young-Hee, Bult, J., Pylypenko, S., Razeghi, Manijeh, Engtrakul, C., Bochert, C., Chen, L., Leong, J., Frisco, S., Simpson, L., Dinh, H., and Pivovar, B. Thu . "Atomic layer deposition for aligned growth of and conformal deposition onto double and triple walled carbon nanotubes". United States. doi:10.1117/12.861090.
@article{osti_1256209,
title = {Atomic layer deposition for aligned growth of and conformal deposition onto double and triple walled carbon nanotubes},
author = {Dameron, A. and Pribat, Didier and Lee, Young-Hee and Bult, J. and Pylypenko, S. and Razeghi, Manijeh and Engtrakul, C. and Bochert, C. and Chen, L. and Leong, J. and Frisco, S. and Simpson, L. and Dinh, H. and Pivovar, B.},
abstractNote = {We present our work on the growth and functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A significant challenge in the growth of aligned single, double and triple walled nanotubes is in the deposition of a controlled thickness catalyst layer. Conventional techniques using line of sight deposition such as sputtering and evaporation produce uniform catalyst layers only when extreme care is taken in the placement of flat substrates. Growth of aligned low wall number carbon nanotubes on contoured, complex geometry, or large surface area substrates is simply not technically feasible through these techniques. Using iron atomic layer deposition (ALD) with ferrocene and oxygen precursors for catalyst deposition circumvents the line of sight problems and allows for uniform coverage across almost all substrates. Furthermore the ALD technique allows for extremely accurate and reproducible thickness depositions. Using these ALD catalyst layers reproducible aligned arrays consisting of primarily double and triple wall CNTS can be fabricated. Conformal coatings onto high aspect ratio surfaces are particularly challenging. The walls of single carbon nanotubes in a nanotube array are inaccessible by line of sight techniques. ALD circumvents this problem by relying on a gas-surface reaction to initiate growth. Generally, growth of ALD films on CNTs results in beading of the deposited materials around CNT defects. This is particularly true of high surface energy materials. The number of nucleation sites and the onset of growth of Pt by ALD can be tuned by use of Ar plasma, O2 plasma and chemical functionalization.},
doi = {10.1117/12.861090},
journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering},
issn = {0277-786X},
number = ,
volume = 7761,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {8}
}