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Title: Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the solvation structures of a high-performance nonaqueous redox flow electrolyte

Abstract

Understanding the solvation structures of electrolytes is important for developing nonaqueous redox flow batteries that hold considerable potential for future large scale energy storage systems. The utilization of an emerging ionic-derivative ferrocene compounds, ferrocenylmethyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bis (triflyoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Fc1N112-TFSI), has recently overcome the issue of solubility in the supporting electrolyte. In this work, 13C1H and 17O NMR investigations were carried out using solvent. It was observed that the spectra of 13C experience changes of chemical shifts while those of 17O undergo line width broadening, indicating interactions between solute and solvent molecules

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1254563
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-115775
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753; 48776; KC0208010
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources; Journal Volume: 308
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Deng, Xuchu, Hu, Mary, Wei, Xiaoliang, Wang, Wei, Mueller, Karl T., Chen, Zhong, and Hu, Jian Zhi. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the solvation structures of a high-performance nonaqueous redox flow electrolyte. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.12.005.
Deng, Xuchu, Hu, Mary, Wei, Xiaoliang, Wang, Wei, Mueller, Karl T., Chen, Zhong, & Hu, Jian Zhi. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the solvation structures of a high-performance nonaqueous redox flow electrolyte. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.12.005.
Deng, Xuchu, Hu, Mary, Wei, Xiaoliang, Wang, Wei, Mueller, Karl T., Chen, Zhong, and Hu, Jian Zhi. Tue . "Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the solvation structures of a high-performance nonaqueous redox flow electrolyte". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.12.005.
@article{osti_1254563,
title = {Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the solvation structures of a high-performance nonaqueous redox flow electrolyte},
author = {Deng, Xuchu and Hu, Mary and Wei, Xiaoliang and Wang, Wei and Mueller, Karl T. and Chen, Zhong and Hu, Jian Zhi},
abstractNote = {Understanding the solvation structures of electrolytes is important for developing nonaqueous redox flow batteries that hold considerable potential for future large scale energy storage systems. The utilization of an emerging ionic-derivative ferrocene compounds, ferrocenylmethyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bis (triflyoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Fc1N112-TFSI), has recently overcome the issue of solubility in the supporting electrolyte. In this work, 13C1H and 17O NMR investigations were carried out using solvent. It was observed that the spectra of 13C experience changes of chemical shifts while those of 17O undergo line width broadening, indicating interactions between solute and solvent molecules},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.12.005},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = ,
volume = 308,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2016},
month = {Tue Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2016}
}
  • Understanding the solvation structures of electrolytes should prove conducive for the development of nonaqueous redox flow batteries that hold considerable potential for future large scale energy storage systems. The utilization of an emerging ionic-derivatived ferrocene compound, ferrocenylmethyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Fc1N112-TFSI), has recently overcome the issue of solubility in the supporting electrolyte. In this work, 13C, 1H and 17O NMR investigations were carried out using electrolyte solutions consisting of Fc1N112-TFSI as the solute and the mixed alkyl carbonate as the solvent. It was observed that the spectra of 13C experience changes of chemical shifts while those of 17O undergomore » linewidth broadening, indicating interactions between solute and solvent molecules. Quantum chemistry calculations of both molecular structures and chemical shifts (13C, 1H and 17O) are performed for interpreting experimental results and of understanding the detailed solvation structures and molecular dynamics. The results indicate that Fc1N112-TFSI is dissociated at varying degrees in mixed solvent depending on concentrations. Solvent molecules encircle Fc1N112 and TFSI respectively as solvation shells, rapidly exchanging with both bulk solvent and TFSI. Additionally, the solvent with high dielectric constant is more capable of dissociating Fc1N112-TFSI molecules compared with those with low dielectric constant. At saturated concentration, contact ion pairs are formed and the solvent molecules are interacting with the Fc rings rather than interacting with the ionic pendant arm of Fc1N112-TFSI. These studies will contribute to the development of nonaqueous electrolytes of storage systems.« less
  • The vanadium (IV) electrolyte solutions with various vanadium concentrations are studied by variable temperature 1H and 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure and kinetics of vanadium (IV) species in the electrolyte solutions are explored with respect to vanadium concentration and temperature. It was found that the vanadium (IV) species exist as hydrated vanadyl ion, i.e. [VO(H2O)5]2+ forming an octahedral coordination with vanadyl oxygen in the axial position and the remaining positions occupied by water molecules. This hydrated vanadyl ion structure is stable in vanadium concentrations up to 3M and in the temperature range of 240 to 340 K.more » The sulfate anions in the electrolyte solutions are found to be weekly bound to this hydrated vanadyl ion and occupies its second coordination sphere. The possible effects of these sulfate anions in proton and water exchange between vanadyl ion and solvent molecules are discussed based on 1H and 17O NMR results.« less
  • We will present a novel design lithium-organic non-aqueous redox flow battery based on a modified ferrocene catholyte. This RFB produced desired electrochemical performance exceeding most of the currently reported nonaqueous RFB systems.
  • Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NRFBs) represent an attractive technology for energy storage from intermittent renewable sources. In these batteries, electrical energy is stored in and extracted from electrolyte solutions of redox-active molecules (termed catholytes and anolytes) that are passed through an electrochemical flow cell. To avoid battery self-discharge, the anolyte and catholyte solutions must be separated by a membrane in the flow cell. This membrane prevents crossover of the redox active molecules, while simultaneously allowing facile transport of charge-balancing ions. A key unmet challenge for the field is the design of redox-active molecule/membrane pairs that enable effective electrolyte separation whilemore » maintaining optimal battery properties. Herein, we demonstrate the development of oligomeric catholytes based on tris(dialkylamino)cyclopropenium (CP) salts that are specifically tailored for pairing with size-exclusion membranes composed of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs). Systematic studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of oligomer size/structure on properties that are crucial for flow battery performance, including cycling stability, charge capacity, solubility, electron transfer kinetics, and crossover rates. These studies have led to the identification of a CP-derived tetramer in which these properties are all comparable, or significantly improved, relative to the monomeric counterpart. Finally, a proof-of-concept flow battery is demonstrated by pairing this tetrameric catholyte with a PIM membrane. After 6 days of cycling, no crossover is detected, demonstrating the promise of this approach. Finally, these studies provide a template for the future design of other redox-active oligomers for this application.« less
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