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Title: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

Abstract

A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note thatmore » the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of Energy (US)
OSTI Identifier:
12543
Report Number(s):
PNNL-12225; EW4010000
R&D Project: 21355; EW4010000; TRN: US0301380
DOE Contract Number:
AC06-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Supercedes report DE00012543; PBD: 7 Oct 1999; PBD: 7 Oct 1999
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; BOREHOLES; FRACTURES; LIQUID WASTES; NOZZLES; ORNL; PUMPING; REMOVAL; SLUDGES; TANKS; TARGETS; TENNESSEE; UNDERGROUND STORAGE; US DOE; WASTES

Citation Formats

Bamberger, J.A., and Boris, G.F. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer. United States: N. p., 1999. Web. doi:10.2172/12543.
Bamberger, J.A., & Boris, G.F. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer. United States. doi:10.2172/12543.
Bamberger, J.A., and Boris, G.F. 1999. "Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer". United States. doi:10.2172/12543. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/12543.
@article{osti_12543,
title = {Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer},
author = {Bamberger, J.A. and Boris, G.F.},
abstractNote = {A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.},
doi = {10.2172/12543},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1999,
month =
}

Technical Report:

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  • This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.
  • The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). As part of its DOE mission, ORNL has pioneered waste disposal technologies throughout the years of site operations since World War II. In the late 1950s, efforts were made to develop a permanent disposal alternative to the surface impoundments at ORNL at the request of the National Academy of Sciences. One such technology, the hydrofracture process, involved forming fractures in an underlying geologic host formation (a low-permeability shale) at depths of up to 1000 ftmore » and subsequently injecting a grout slurry containing low-level liquid waste, cement, and other additives at an injection pressure of about 2000 psi. The objective of the effort was to develop a grout slurry that could be injected as a liquid but would solidify after injection, thereby immobilizing the radioisotopes contained in the low-level liquid waste. The scope of this site characterization was the access, sampling, logging, and evaluation of observation wells near the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) in preparation for plugging, recompletion, or other final disposition of the wells.« less
  • This site characterization summary report summarizes the operational history and other information on the Old Hydrofracture Facility located in the Waste Area Grouping 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Old Hydrofracture Facility was a waste disposal facility that operated from the 1960s until 1979. Intermediate-level radioactive waste was mixed with grout and injected deep underground for permanent disposal. Facilities at the site include various buildings, pipes, waste pits, and five underground storage tanks that contain liquid and sludge that have been characterized as low-level, hazardous, and mixed wastes.
  • The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tanks content removal project is to transfer inventory from the five OHF tanks located in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) liquid low-level (radioactive) waste (LLLW) storage facility, and remediate the remaining OHF tank shells. The major activities involved are identified in this document along with the organizations that will perform the required actions and their roles and responsibilities for managing the project.
  • The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquidmore » low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste.« less