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Title: The evolution of the intracluster medium metallicity in Sunyaev Zel'dovich-selected galaxy clusters at 0 < z < 1.5

Abstract

Here, we present the results of an X-ray spectral analysis of 153 galaxy clusters observed with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku space telescopes. These clusters, which span 0 < z < 1.5, were drawn from a larger, mass-selected sample of galaxy clusters discovered in the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. With a total combined exposure time of 9.1 Ms, these data yield the strongest constraints to date on the evolution of the metal content of the intracluster medium (ICM). We find no evidence for strong evolution in the global (r < R 500) ICM metallicity (dZ/dz = –0.06 ± 0.04 Z ⊙), with a mean value at z = 0.6 of $$\langle Z\rangle =0.23\pm 0.01$$ Z ⊙ and a scatter of σ Z = 0.08 ± 0.01 Z ⊙. These results imply that the emission-weighted metallicity has not changed by more than 40% since z = 1 (at 95% confidence), consistent with the picture of an early (z > 1) enrichment. We find, in agreement with previous works, a significantly higher mean value for the metallicity in the centers of cool core clusters versus non-cool core clusters. We find weak evidence for evolution in the central metallicity of cool core clusters (dZ/dz = –0.21 ± 0.11 Z ⊙), which is sufficient to account for this enhanced central metallicity over the past ~10 Gyr. We find no evidence for metallicity evolution outside of the core (dZ/dz = –0.03 ± 0.06 Z ⊙), and no significant difference in the core-excised metallicity between cool core and non-cool core clusters. This suggests that strong radio-mode active galactic nucleus feedback does not significantly alter the distribution of metals at $$r\gt 0.15{R}_{500}$$. Given the limitations of current-generation X-ray telescopes in constraining the ICM metallicity at z > 1, significant improvements on this work will likely require next-generation X-ray missions.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [11];  [12];  [7];  [13];  [8];  [14]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  4. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  5. Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)
  6. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  7. Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany)
  8. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  9. Univ. de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)
  10. Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, Huntingdon, PA (United States)
  11. Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany)
  12. Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia)
  13. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)
  14. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); Australian Research Council
OSTI Identifier:
1253589
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-16-086-A-AE-PPD; arXiv:1603.03035
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; 1426988; TRN: US1601718
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 826; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium; X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Citation Formats

McDonald, M., Bulbul, E., Haan, T. de, Miller, E. D., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Brodwin, M., Carlstrom, J. E., Chiu, I., Forman, W. R., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Garmire, G. P., Gupta, N., Mohr, J. J., Reichardt, C. L., Saro, A., Stalder, B., Stark, A. A., and Vieira, J. D.. The evolution of the intracluster medium metallicity in Sunyaev Zel'dovich-selected galaxy clusters at 0 < z < 1.5. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/826/2/124.
McDonald, M., Bulbul, E., Haan, T. de, Miller, E. D., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Brodwin, M., Carlstrom, J. E., Chiu, I., Forman, W. R., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Garmire, G. P., Gupta, N., Mohr, J. J., Reichardt, C. L., Saro, A., Stalder, B., Stark, A. A., & Vieira, J. D.. The evolution of the intracluster medium metallicity in Sunyaev Zel'dovich-selected galaxy clusters at 0 < z < 1.5. United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/826/2/124.
McDonald, M., Bulbul, E., Haan, T. de, Miller, E. D., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Brodwin, M., Carlstrom, J. E., Chiu, I., Forman, W. R., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Garmire, G. P., Gupta, N., Mohr, J. J., Reichardt, C. L., Saro, A., Stalder, B., Stark, A. A., and Vieira, J. D.. 2016. "The evolution of the intracluster medium metallicity in Sunyaev Zel'dovich-selected galaxy clusters at 0 < z < 1.5". United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/826/2/124. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1253589.
@article{osti_1253589,
title = {The evolution of the intracluster medium metallicity in Sunyaev Zel'dovich-selected galaxy clusters at 0 < z < 1.5},
author = {McDonald, M. and Bulbul, E. and Haan, T. de and Miller, E. D. and Benson, B. A. and Bleem, L. E. and Brodwin, M. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Chiu, I. and Forman, W. R. and Hlavacek-Larrondo, J. and Garmire, G. P. and Gupta, N. and Mohr, J. J. and Reichardt, C. L. and Saro, A. and Stalder, B. and Stark, A. A. and Vieira, J. D.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the results of an X-ray spectral analysis of 153 galaxy clusters observed with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku space telescopes. These clusters, which span 0 < z < 1.5, were drawn from a larger, mass-selected sample of galaxy clusters discovered in the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. With a total combined exposure time of 9.1 Ms, these data yield the strongest constraints to date on the evolution of the metal content of the intracluster medium (ICM). We find no evidence for strong evolution in the global (r < R 500) ICM metallicity (dZ/dz = –0.06 ± 0.04 Z ⊙), with a mean value at z = 0.6 of $\langle Z\rangle =0.23\pm 0.01$ Z ⊙ and a scatter of σ Z = 0.08 ± 0.01 Z ⊙. These results imply that the emission-weighted metallicity has not changed by more than 40% since z = 1 (at 95% confidence), consistent with the picture of an early (z > 1) enrichment. We find, in agreement with previous works, a significantly higher mean value for the metallicity in the centers of cool core clusters versus non-cool core clusters. We find weak evidence for evolution in the central metallicity of cool core clusters (dZ/dz = –0.21 ± 0.11 Z ⊙), which is sufficient to account for this enhanced central metallicity over the past ~10 Gyr. We find no evidence for metallicity evolution outside of the core (dZ/dz = –0.03 ± 0.06 Z ⊙), and no significant difference in the core-excised metallicity between cool core and non-cool core clusters. This suggests that strong radio-mode active galactic nucleus feedback does not significantly alter the distribution of metals at $r\gt 0.15{R}_{500}$. Given the limitations of current-generation X-ray telescopes in constraining the ICM metallicity at z > 1, significant improvements on this work will likely require next-generation X-ray missions.},
doi = {10.3847/0004-637X/826/2/124},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 826,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

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Cited by: 5works
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  • Here, we present the results of an X-ray spectral analysis of 153 galaxy clusters observed with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku space telescopes. These clusters, which span 0 < z < 1.5, were drawn from a larger, mass-selected sample of galaxy clusters discovered in the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. With a total combined exposure time of 9.1 Ms, these data yield the strongest constraints to date on the evolution of the metal content of the intracluster medium (ICM). We find no evidence for strong evolution in the global ( r < R 500) ICMmore » metallicity ( dZ/dz = -0.06 ± 0.04 Z ), with a mean value at z = 0.6 of < Z > = 0.23 ± 0.01 Z and a scatter of σ Z = 0.08 ± 0.01 Z . These results imply that the emission-weighted metallicity has not changed by more than 40% since z = 1 (at 95% confidence), consistent with the picture of an early ( z > 1) enrichment. We find, in agreement with previous works, a significantly higher mean value for the metallicity in the centers of cool core clusters versus non-cool core clusters. We find weak evidence for evolution in the central metallicity of cool core clusters ( dZ/dz = -0.21 ± 0.11 Z ), which is sufficient to account for this enhanced central metallicity over the past similar to 10 Gyr. We find no evidence for metallicity evolution outside of the core ( dZ/dz = -0.03 ± 0.06 Z ), and no significant difference in the core-excised metallicity between cool core and non-cool core clusters. This suggests that strong radio-mode active galactic nucleus feedback does not significantly alter the distribution of metals at r > 0.15R 500. Lastly, given the limitations of current-generation X-ray telescopes in constraining the ICM metallicity at z > 1, significant improvements on this work will likely require next-generation X-ray missions.« less
  • We perform a joint analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect data using an analytic model that describes the gas properties of galaxy clusters. The joint analysis allows the measurement of the cluster gas mass fraction profile and Hubble constant independent of cosmological parameters. Weak cosmological priors are used to calculate the overdensity radius within which the gas mass fractions are reported. Such an analysis can provide direct constraints on the evolution of the cluster gas mass fraction with redshift. We validate the model and the joint analysis on high signal-to-noise data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Arraymore » for two clusters, A2631 and A2204.« less
  • We present first results of an examination of the optical properties of the galaxy populations in Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. Using clusters selected by the South Pole Telescope survey and deep multiband optical data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, we measure the radial profile, the luminosity function (LF), the blue fraction, and the halo occupation number (HON) of the galaxy populations of these four clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.3 to 1. Our goal is to understand whether there are differences among the galaxy populations of these SZE-selected clusters and previously studied clusters selected in the optical andmore » the X-ray. The radial distributions of galaxies in the four systems are consistent with Navarro-Frenk-White profiles with a galaxy concentration of 3 to 6. We show that the characteristic luminosities in griz bands are consistent with passively evolving populations emerging from a single burst at redshift z = 3. The faint-end power-law slope of the LF is found to be on average {alpha} {approx} -1.2 in griz. HONs (to m* + 2) for these systems appear to be consistent with those based on X-ray-selected clusters. The blue fraction estimated to 0.36 L*, for the three lower redshift systems, suggests an increase with redshift, although with the current sample the uncertainties are still large. Overall, this pilot study of the first four clusters provides no evidence that the galaxy populations in these systems differ significantly from those in previously studied cluster populations selected in the X-ray or the optical.« less
  • We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg 2 of the XMM–Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (≥10 42 erg s -1) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y_500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with anmore » extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8σ with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8σ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_500 signal that is (17 ± 9)per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter constraints on these SZE mass–observable relations.« less
  • We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from similar to 6 deg(2) of the XMM-Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (>= 10(42) erg s(-1)) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y-500 mass relations. The former is inmore » good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8 sigma with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8 sigma significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y-500 signal that is (17 +/- 9) per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter constraints on these SZE mass-observable relations.« less