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Title: Nonlinear ultrasonic characterization of precipitation in 17-4PH stainless steel

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Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
NDT and E International
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 71; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-07-18 10:30:30; Journal ID: ISSN 0963-8695
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom

Citation Formats

Matlack, Kathryn H., Bradley, Harrison A., Thiele, Sebastian, Kim, Jin-Yeon, Wall, James J., Jung, Hee Joon, Qu, Jianmin, and Jacobs, Laurence J.. Nonlinear ultrasonic characterization of precipitation in 17-4PH stainless steel. United Kingdom: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.11.001.
Matlack, Kathryn H., Bradley, Harrison A., Thiele, Sebastian, Kim, Jin-Yeon, Wall, James J., Jung, Hee Joon, Qu, Jianmin, & Jacobs, Laurence J.. Nonlinear ultrasonic characterization of precipitation in 17-4PH stainless steel. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.11.001.
Matlack, Kathryn H., Bradley, Harrison A., Thiele, Sebastian, Kim, Jin-Yeon, Wall, James J., Jung, Hee Joon, Qu, Jianmin, and Jacobs, Laurence J.. 2015. "Nonlinear ultrasonic characterization of precipitation in 17-4PH stainless steel". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.11.001.
title = {Nonlinear ultrasonic characterization of precipitation in 17-4PH stainless steel},
author = {Matlack, Kathryn H. and Bradley, Harrison A. and Thiele, Sebastian and Kim, Jin-Yeon and Wall, James J. and Jung, Hee Joon and Qu, Jianmin and Jacobs, Laurence J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.11.001},
journal = {NDT and E International},
number = C,
volume = 71,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = 2015,
month = 4

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.11.001

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 14works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • The extension of operational lifetime of most US nuclear reactors will cause reactor pressure vessel to be exposed to increased levels of neutron radiation damage. This research is part of a broader effort to develop a nondestructive evaluation technique to monitor radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel steels. The main contributor to radiation embrittlement in these steels is the formation of copper-rich precipitates. In this work, a precipitate hardenable martensitic alloy, 17-4PH stainless steel is exposed to thermal aging treatments, and used as a surrogate material to study the effects of copper precipitates on the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter. Previousmore » work has demonstrated the effectiveness of these nonlinear ultrasonic (NLU) measurements in the characterization of radiation-induced microstructural changes in neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels. NLU measurements using Rayleigh surface waves are performed on 17-4PH samples subjected to isothermal aging. NLU measurements are interpreted with hardness, thermo-electric power, TEM, and atom probe tomography measurements. The Rayleigh wave measurements showed a decrease in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter with increasing aging time, consistent with evidence of increasing number density of nucleated precipitates.« less
  • The interrupted low cycle fatigue test of austenitic stainless steel was conducted and the dislocation structure and fatigue damage was evaluated subsequently by using both transmission electron microscope and nonlinear ultrasonic wave techniques. A “mountain shape” correlation between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the fatigue life fraction was achieved. This was ascribed to the generation and evolution of planar dislocation structure and nonplanar dislocation structure such as veins, walls, and cells. The “mountain shape” correlation was interpreted successfully by the combined contribution of dislocation monopole and dipole with an internal-stress dependent term of acoustic nonlinearity.
  • This research uses nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves to characterize stress corrosion cracking (SCC) damage in welded 304 Stainless Steel (304 SS). 304 SS is widely used in reactor pressure vessels, where a corrosive environment in combination with applied stress due to high internal pressures can cause SCC. Welds and the nearby heat affected zones (HAZ) in the vessel material are especially sensitive to SCC damage. SCC damage results in microstructural changes such as dislocation formation and microcrack initiation that in the long term lead to reduced structural integrity and material failure. Therefore, the early detection of SCC is crucial tomore » ensure safe operation. It has been shown that the microstructural changes caused by SCC can generate higher harmonic waves when excited harmonically. This research considers different levels of SCC damage induced in samples of welded 304 SS by applying stress to a specimen held in a corrosive medium (Sodium Thiosulfate). A nonlinear Rayleigh surface wave is introduced in the material and the fundamental and the second harmonic waves are measured using wedge detection. The nonlinearity parameter that relates the fundamental and the second harmonic amplitudes, is computed to quantify the SCC damage in each sample. These results are used to demonstrate the feasibility of using nonlinear Rayleigh waves to characterize SCC damage.« less
  • Metallic test coupons subjected to corrosion in a lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) were analyzed by both ultrasound and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The advantages and disadvantages of each method are given, and the possibility of using ultrasound as a screening process for SEM is presented. Visual data from each method are given, and the data derived from each method are compared and contrasted. Use of both ultrasound and SEM is recommended for future analysis of corrosion coupons, and development of a better methodology will increase the portion of the analysis workload obtainable by ultrasound.
  • The development of the thermonuclear technology has given rise to a renewed interest in the study of the behavior of helium in metals. A great amount of work is still required for the understanding of the role of helium on the mechanical properties of structural materials for fusion technology, especially austenitic stainless steels. This article deals with the study of the influence of thermomechanical heat treatments, aging conditions (temperature and time), and helium concentration of helium bubble precipitation in a 316L austenitic steel. Helium was generated by the radioactive decay of tritium (tritium trick). Helium bubbles impede the grain growthmore » in 316L steel aged at 1,373 K and also the recrystallization reaction at this temperature if cold working is performed prior to aging. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations indicated a weak helium precipitation at 1,073 and 1,223 K, presumably due to the presence of trapping sites for tritium, and no bubble growth after aging up to 100 hours. Precipitation sites are mainly dislocations in the matrix at 1,073 K and grain boundaries and individual dislocations in the matrix at 1,223 K. The large bubble size (50 nm) observed at 1,373 K, even for short aging times (0.083), can partly be attributed to bubble dragging by dislocations toward the grain boundaries. Cold deformation prior to aging leads to a larger bubble size due to growth enhancement during recrystallization. Decreasing the helium content leads to a smaller helium bubble size and density. Tritium trapping at helium bubbles may favor helium 3 accumulation on defects such as grain boundaries, as observed by tritium autoradiography.« less