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Title: An analysis of glass–glass CIGS manufacturing costs

Abstract

This article examines current cost drivers and potential avenues to reduced cost for monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules by constructing a comprehensive bottom-up cost model. For a reference case where sputtering plus batch sulfurization after selenization (SAS) is employed, we compute a manufacturing cost of $69/m2 if the modules are made in the United States at a 1 GW/year production volume. At 14% module efficiency, this corresponds to a manufacturing cost of $0.49/WDC and a minimum sustainable price (MSP) of $0.67/WDC. We estimate that MSP could vary within +/-20% of this value given the range of quoted input prices, and existing variations in module design, manufacturing processes, and manufacturing location. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC may be possible if average production module efficiencies can be increased above 17% without increasing $/m2 costs; even lower costs could be achieved if $/m2 costs could be reduced, particularly via innovations in the CIGS deposition process or balance-of-module elements. We present the impact on cost of regional factors, CIGS deposition method, device design, and price fluctuations. One metric of competitiveness-levelized cost of energy (LCOE) -- is also assessed for several U.S. locations and compared to that of standard multi-crystalline siliconmore » (m(c-Si)) and cadmium telluride (CdTe).« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1252171
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-6A20-64972
Journal ID: ISSN 0927-0248
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells; Journal Volume: 154
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; CIGS; photovoltaic; co-evaporation; selenization; cost analysis; LCOE

Citation Formats

Horowitz, Kelsey A. W., Fu, Ran, and Woodhouse, Michael. An analysis of glass–glass CIGS manufacturing costs. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.029.
Horowitz, Kelsey A. W., Fu, Ran, & Woodhouse, Michael. An analysis of glass–glass CIGS manufacturing costs. United States. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.029.
Horowitz, Kelsey A. W., Fu, Ran, and Woodhouse, Michael. 2016. "An analysis of glass–glass CIGS manufacturing costs". United States. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.029.
@article{osti_1252171,
title = {An analysis of glass–glass CIGS manufacturing costs},
author = {Horowitz, Kelsey A. W. and Fu, Ran and Woodhouse, Michael},
abstractNote = {This article examines current cost drivers and potential avenues to reduced cost for monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules by constructing a comprehensive bottom-up cost model. For a reference case where sputtering plus batch sulfurization after selenization (SAS) is employed, we compute a manufacturing cost of $69/m2 if the modules are made in the United States at a 1 GW/year production volume. At 14% module efficiency, this corresponds to a manufacturing cost of $0.49/WDC and a minimum sustainable price (MSP) of $0.67/WDC. We estimate that MSP could vary within +/-20% of this value given the range of quoted input prices, and existing variations in module design, manufacturing processes, and manufacturing location. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC may be possible if average production module efficiencies can be increased above 17% without increasing $/m2 costs; even lower costs could be achieved if $/m2 costs could be reduced, particularly via innovations in the CIGS deposition process or balance-of-module elements. We present the impact on cost of regional factors, CIGS deposition method, device design, and price fluctuations. One metric of competitiveness-levelized cost of energy (LCOE) -- is also assessed for several U.S. locations and compared to that of standard multi-crystalline silicon (m(c-Si)) and cadmium telluride (CdTe).},
doi = {10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.029},
journal = {Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells},
number = ,
volume = 154,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}
  • High-quality copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) films were subjected to a variety of surface treatments attendant to and including deposition of CdS and/or ZnO junctions or buffer layers. The resulting devices were analyzed at 87 K using Fourier transform photoluminescence (FT-PL) spectroscopy as part of a battery of analytical procedures, including surface analysis, ellipsometry, and I{endash}V measurements, designed to elucidate the influences of the several interfaces on device performance. Our FT-PL system was upgraded with a miniature Joule-Thomson cryostat and a helium-neon laser excitation source to enable collection of highly-resolved, continuous PL spectra from 950{endash}1750 nm. The PL intensity enhancementsmore » measured with the upgraded FT-PL system for devices fabricated using chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS, with or without a ZnO electrode, are much greater than for devices incorporating physical vapor deposited (PVD) CdS or ZnO/CIGS interfaces. Exposure of the CIGS films to components of the CBD solution alone, without deposition of CdS, also increases PL intensity, implying a reduction in the rate of non-radiative recombination in the films. Application of CBD CdS or a CBD background solution to the CIGS shifted its PL spectrum to shorter wavelengths, while application of PVD CdS or ZnO to the CIGS broadened its PL spectrum at longer wavelengths. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less