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Title: Hierarchical electrode design of high-capacity alloy nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

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Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Today
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 2; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-03 22:29:17; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0132
Country of Publication:

Citation Formats

Zhao, Hui, Yuan, Wen, and Liu, Gao. Hierarchical electrode design of high-capacity alloy nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries. Netherlands: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2015.02.009.
Zhao, Hui, Yuan, Wen, & Liu, Gao. Hierarchical electrode design of high-capacity alloy nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2015.02.009.
Zhao, Hui, Yuan, Wen, and Liu, Gao. 2015. "Hierarchical electrode design of high-capacity alloy nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2015.02.009.
title = {Hierarchical electrode design of high-capacity alloy nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries},
author = {Zhao, Hui and Yuan, Wen and Liu, Gao},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.nantod.2015.02.009},
journal = {Nano Today},
number = 2,
volume = 10,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2015,
month = 4

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.nantod.2015.02.009

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Cited by: 29works
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  • Lithium batteries are used to power a diverse range of applications from small compact devices, such as smart cards and cellular telephones to large heavy duty devices such as uninterrupted power supply units and electric- and hybrid-electric vehicles. This paper briefly reviews the approaches to design advanced materials to replace the lithiated graphite and LiCoO{sub 2} electrodes that dominate today's lithium-ion batteries in order to increase their energy and safety. The technological advantages of lithium batteries are placed in the context of water-based- and high-temperature battery systems.
  • Although crystalline silicon (c-Si) anodes promise very high energy densities in Li-ion batteries, their practical use is complicated by amorphization, large volume expansion and severe plastic deformation upon lithium insertion. Recent experiments have revealed the existence of a sharp interface between crystalline Si (c-Si) and the amorphous Li xSi alloy during lithiation, which propagates with a velocity that is orientation dependent; the resulting anisotropic swelling generates substantial strain concentrations that initiate cracks even in nanostructured Si. Here we describe a novel strategy to mitigate lithiation-induced fracture by using pristine c-Si structures with engineered anisometric morphologies that are deliberately designed tomore » counteract the anisotropy in the crystalline/amorphous interface velocity. This produces a much more uniform volume expansion, significantly reducing strain concentration. Based on a new, validated methodology that improves previous models of anisotropic swelling of c-Si, we propose optimal morphological designs for c-Si pillars and particles. The advantages of the new morphologies are clearly demonstrated by mesoscale simulations and verified by experiments on engineered c-Si micropillars. The results of this study illustrate that morphological design is effective in improving the fracture resistance of micron-sized Si electrodes, which will facilitate their practical application in next-generation Li-ion batteries. In conclusion, the model and design approach present in this paper also have general implications for the study and mitigation of mechanical failure of electrode materials that undergo large anisotropic volume change upon ion insertion and extraction.« less
  • The effect of electrode thickness and density for unpressed and pressed natural graphite electrodes were studied using electrochemical characterization. Pressing the graphite electrode decreases the reversible capacity and the irreversible capacity loss during formation. As electrode density increased, the capacity retention at high rate increased until 0.9g/cm{sup 3}, and then decreased. The cycle performances of the pressed graphite electrodes were more stable than the unpressed one. Pressing graphite electrode affected on its electrochemical characterization such as irreversible capacity loss, high rate cycling and cycle performance.
  • A novel approach for suppressing the solvated lithium intercalation in graphite was developed by microencapsulating graphite with nanosized Ni-composite particles. The Ni-composite graphite showed great improvement in charge-discharge performance, coulomb efficiency, and cycling behavior when used as the negative electrode in a Li-ion cell with propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolyte. For example, a 10 wt % Ni-composite coating increased the initial charge-discharge coulomb efficiency of SFG75 graphite (75 {micro}m, Timcal America) from 59 to 84% and the reversible capacity by 30--40 mAh/g. The Ni-composite coating consisted of nanosized particles distributed over the surface of the graphite particle, which effectively blocked somemore » of the edge surfaces exposed to the electrolyte. this minimized solvated lithium intercalation at these edge sites, which subsequently minimized the PC reduction within the graphite and the exfoliation of the graphene layers, and also gas evolution. Corresponding improvements in both the charge-discharge performance and safety of the negative electrode in a rechargeable Li-ion cell resulted.« less
  • Many researchers have focused in recent years on resolving the crucial problem of capacity fading in Li ion batteries when carbon anodes are replaced by other group-IV elements (Si, Ge, Sn) with much higher capacities. Some progress was achieved by using different nanostructures (mainly carbon coatings), with which the cycle numbers reached 100-200. However, obtaining longer stability via a simple process remains challenging. Here we demonstrate that a nanostructure of amorphous hierarchical porous GeO{sub x} whose primary particles are {approx}3.7 nm diameter has a very stable capacity of {approx}1250 mA h g{sup -1} for 600 cycles. Furthermore, we show thatmore » a full cell coupled with a Li(NiCoMn){sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode exhibits high performance.« less