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Title: Development of K and N based composite CO 2 sorbents (KN) dried with a supercritical fluid

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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
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Chemical Engineering Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 262; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-05-18 03:08:30; Journal ID: ISSN 1385-8947
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Wu, Ye, Chen, Xiaoping, Fan, Maohong, Jiang, Guodong, Kong, Yong, and Bland, Alan E. Development of K and N based composite CO 2 sorbents (KN) dried with a supercritical fluid. Switzerland: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2014.10.027.
Wu, Ye, Chen, Xiaoping, Fan, Maohong, Jiang, Guodong, Kong, Yong, & Bland, Alan E. Development of K and N based composite CO 2 sorbents (KN) dried with a supercritical fluid. Switzerland. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2014.10.027.
Wu, Ye, Chen, Xiaoping, Fan, Maohong, Jiang, Guodong, Kong, Yong, and Bland, Alan E. 2015. "Development of K and N based composite CO 2 sorbents (KN) dried with a supercritical fluid". Switzerland. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2014.10.027.
title = {Development of K and N based composite CO 2 sorbents (KN) dried with a supercritical fluid},
author = {Wu, Ye and Chen, Xiaoping and Fan, Maohong and Jiang, Guodong and Kong, Yong and Bland, Alan E.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.cej.2014.10.027},
journal = {Chemical Engineering Journal},
number = C,
volume = 262,
place = {Switzerland},
year = 2015,
month = 2

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.cej.2014.10.027

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Cited by: 7works
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  • Supercritical fluid chromatography using n-pentane as a mobile phase and Porasil C as a column packing was applied to the characterization of Dow-Corning 710 fluid, a gas chromatographic stationary phase. Decomposition of the polymer was observed on columns of alumina, and derivatized Porasil packings were found to be unstable. Linear pressure programming variables were studied at 206 and 216/sup 0/C by normalizing the total analysis time on a fixed length of column. A series of homologous polymer components was used to demonstrate the effects upon resolution of density-isotherm nonlinearity associated with the mobile phase. The results showed that optimal temperaturemore » conditions existed for the use of linear pressure programming, with the choice of temperature conditions dependent upon the molecular weight range. Operational guidelines are suggested. Mixed solvent behavior was investigated for this separation. Addition of 0 to 20 percent v/v isopropanol to pentane was shown to change adsorption characteristics and alter critical constants. The effect upon the critical constants appeared to conform to Kay's approximation. The results suggest that mixed solvents can be used to speed up separations for mixtures having components of widely different adsorption energies. The pseudocritical concept using Kay's approximation was tested for its qualitative ability to estimate state effects when solvents are mixed. The effect of temperature upon migration behavior was compared for equimolar amounts of isopropanol and methanol, each in n-pentane. Kay's approximation appeared to be useful for qualitative predictions regarding changes in critical pressure. However, an attempt to predict density isotherm behavior for 20% isopropanol in n-pentane relative to pure n-pentane suggested that Kay's approximation may not be as useful for predicting critical temperature effects.« less
  • A new analytical method using supercritical fluid chromatography with flame ionization detection was developed for determining the total aromatic content of middle distillates. Separation between saturates and aromatics is accomplished on a packed silica column with supercritical CO/sub 2/ as the carrier fluid. The method is simple, fast and applicable to heavy distillates with final boiling points up to 450/degrees/C and is not restricted by sample color. The similar response of the FID to saturates and aromatics collected from separation of actual samples indicates that calibration is not required. Aromatic concentrations in a number of middle distillates were also determinedmore » by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and the ASTM standard fluorescent indicator adsorption methods. Data indicate good correlations among the methods. Because of its simplicity and speed, the SFC method would be suitable for applications in petroleum refinery control laboratories.« less
  • H{sub 2}S sorption by 18--35 mesh particles (average mass radius of 0.40 mm) of three different calcium-based sorbents (limestone, CaCO{sub 3}; dolomitic limestone, [MgCO{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3}]{sub 1}[CaCO{sub 3}]{sub 3}; dolomite, MgCO{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3}) was tested under simulated coal gas in a differential tube reactor. Two fundamentally different behaviors were observed. Above the calcination temperature of CaCO{sub 3}, complete conversion of CaCO{sub 3} to CaS can be achieved with all three sorbents; the reaction rate increases as the magnesium-to-calcium ratio increases in the sorbent and the reaction rate is controlled by the diffusion of H{sub 2}S through the CaS product layermore » and by the kinetics of the calcination of CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. However, below the calcination temperature of CaCO{sub 3} (about 900 C under 1 bar of CO{sub 2}), less than 20% of the CaCO{sub 3} in limestone can be converted to CaS compared to 100% in dolomite. For the dolomitic limestone, all the calcium atoms associated with the dolomite regions can be converted to CaS whereas only 20% of those associated with the limestone regions can be converted. Above 710 C, the sulfidation rate of dolomite and dolomitic limestone is controlled by the diffusion of H{sub 2}S through the product layer. Below 710 C, the kinetics of calcination of MgCO{sub 3} as well as the rate of the chemical reaction between CaCO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S become the limiting steps in the overall reaction kinetics.« less
  • In this study, the performances of different preparation methods of the scaffolds were analyzed for chondrocyte tissue engineering. Silk fibroin/collagen (SF/C) was fabricated using a vacuum freeze-dried technique and by 3D printing. The porosity, water absorption expansion rates, mechanical properties, and pore sizes of the resulting materials were evaluated. The proliferation and metabolism of the cells was detected at different time points using an MTT assay. Cell morphologies and distributions were observed by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity, water absorption expansion rate, and Young’s modulus of the material obtained via 3D printing were significantly higher thanmore » those obtained by the freeze-dried method, while the pore size did not differ significantly between the two methods. MTT assay results showed that the metabolism of cells seeded on the 3D printed scaffolds was more viable than the metabolism on the freeze-dried material. H&E staining of the scaffolds revealed that the number of cells in the 3D printed scaffold was higher in comparison to a similar measurement on the freeze-dried material. Consequently, stem cells grew well inside the 3D printed scaffolds, as measured by SEM, while the internal structure of the freeze-dried scaffold was disordered. Compared with the freeze-dried technique, the 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance and was more suitable for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/collagen was fabricated using 3D printing. • Physical characterization and Cell compatibility were compared. • 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance.« less
  • In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to includemore » fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that are regulated as food supplements but are intended to treat disease or maintain health. Antioxidants and beneficial lipid products are major examples in this category. The final major category consists of environmental applications, both as an extraction technique for environmental analysis, and as a possible remediation strategy for removing contaminants that would otherwise be too expensive to recover. Most of the work in this area has focused on non-polar compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), where non-polar supercritical (SC) CO2 offers high extraction efficiencies. Co-solvent systems combining CO2 with one or more modifiers extend the utility of SC CO2 to polar and even ionic compounds. Supercritical water can extract polar compounds, and it has the additional advantage of combining extraction and destruction of contaminants via the supercritical water oxidation (SUWOX) process. Supercritical fluids are also useful in various niche applications. Fuel extraction, conversion, and analysis is one such application. Extraction of metals from various matrixes is also an area of continuing interest. The application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to production of nano-structured materials is a new area likely to see rapid growth in the next few years.« less