skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Life cycle assessment comparison of emerging and traditional Titanium dioxide manufacturing processes

ORCiD logo; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Cleaner Production
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 89; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-05-30 15:52:08; Journal ID: ISSN 0959-6526
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom

Citation Formats

Middlemas, Scott, Fang, Z. Zak, and Fan, Peng. Life cycle assessment comparison of emerging and traditional Titanium dioxide manufacturing processes. United Kingdom: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.11.019.
Middlemas, Scott, Fang, Z. Zak, & Fan, Peng. Life cycle assessment comparison of emerging and traditional Titanium dioxide manufacturing processes. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.11.019.
Middlemas, Scott, Fang, Z. Zak, and Fan, Peng. 2015. "Life cycle assessment comparison of emerging and traditional Titanium dioxide manufacturing processes". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.11.019.
title = {Life cycle assessment comparison of emerging and traditional Titanium dioxide manufacturing processes},
author = {Middlemas, Scott and Fang, Z. Zak and Fan, Peng},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.11.019},
journal = {Journal of Cleaner Production},
number = C,
volume = 89,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = 2015,
month = 2

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.11.019

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 9works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • We evaluated the fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants (NOx, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5) of electric vehicles (EVs) in China and the United States (U.S.), two of the largest potential markets for EVs in the world. Six of the most economically developed and populated regions in China and the U.S. were selected. The results showed that EV fuel-cycle emissions depend substantially on the carbon intensity and cleanness of the electricity mix, and vary significantly across the regions studied. In those regions with a low share of coal-based electricity (e.g., California), EVs can reduce GHG and air pollutantmore » emissions (except for PM) significantly compared with conventional vehicles. However, in the Chinese regions and selected U.S. Midwestern states where coal dominates in the generation mix, EVs can reduce GHG emissions but increase the total and urban emissions of air pollutants. In 2025, EVs will offer greater reductions in GHG and air pollutant emissions because emissions from power plants will be better controlled; EVs in the Chinese regions examined, however, may still increase SO2 and PM emissions. Reductions of 60–85% in GHGs and air pollutants could be achieved were EVs charged with 80% renewable electricity or the electricity generated from the best available technologies of coal-fired power plants, which are futuristic power generation scenarios.« less
  • In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at themore » production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.« less
  • Utilizing a conventional photoacoustic spectrometer in a pump-probe arrangement, band-gap excitation of powdered titanium dioxide in a moist, oxygen-free atmosphere results in a strong photochromic response, characteristic of small polaron formation. The reactivity and remarkable lifetime of such excited species are demonstrated in their subsequent dark reduction of methylviologen. Results from two independent methods indicate carrier densities in the range 10/sup 19/-10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/. Electron-hole recombination follows first-order kinetics, suggesting that detrapping of surface-trapped holes is rate controlling. The presence of water vapor delays the recombination process, extending decay constants from seconds to minutes.
  • Both humans and wildlife are exposed to various types of halogenated organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), typically old chemicals, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPM) and brominated flame retardants, some new chemicals, simultaneously. Classical risk assessment has evaluated health and ecological risks independently by experts from different disciplines. Taking into considerations the recent concerns about endocrine disrupting chemicals and the progress of research in related areas, we integrated and assessed data on exposure and potential effects in humans and wildlife. Comparisons were made for organ concentrations, body burdens of several organochlorine compounds (OCs), metabolic capacities between humansmore » and various wildlife. When we integrate the knowledge on effects and exposure in humans and in wildlife, new insights were suggested about similarities and/or differences in potential effects among various human populations living on different foods and having different body burdens. Combining existing information with emerging knowledge of mechanisms of actions on endocrine disrupting chemicals after exposure to above chemicals during early developmental stages will further elucidate potential risks from exposure to those chemicals.« less