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Title: Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated InGaP/GaAs HBTs

Abstract

Flip-chip heterogeneously integrated n-p-n InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with integrated thermal management on wide-bandgap AlN substrates followed by GaAs substrate removal are demonstrated. Without thermal management, substrate removal after integration significantly aggravates self-heating effects, causing poor I–V characteristics due to excessive device self-heating. An electrothermal codesign scheme is demonstrated that involves simulation (design), thermal characterization, fabrication, and evaluation. Thermoreflectance thermal imaging, electrical-temperature sensitive parameter-based thermometry, and infrared thermography were utilized to assess the junction temperature rise in HBTs under diverse configurations. In order to reduce the thermal resistance of integrated devices, passive cooling schemes assisted by structural modification, i.e., positioning indium bump heat sinks between the devices and the carrier, were employed. By implementing thermal heat sinks in close proximity to the active region of flip-chip integrated HBTs, the junction-to-baseplate thermal resistance was reduced over a factor of two, as revealed by junction temperature measurements and improvement of electrical performance. In conclusion, the suggested heterogeneous integration method accounts for not only electrical but also thermal requirements providing insight into realization of advanced and robust III–V/Si heterogeneously integrated electronics.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1249073
Report Number(s):
SAND-2016-1304J
Journal ID: ISSN 2156-3950; 619378
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: PP; Journal Issue: 99; Journal ID: ISSN 2156-3950
Publisher:
IEEE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; III-V semiconductor materials; heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs); infrared (IR) imaging; integrated circuit technology; temperature measurement; thermal management of electronics; thermoreflectance imaging

Citation Formats

Choi, Sukwon, Peake, Gregory M., Keeler, Gordon A., Geib, Kent M., Briggs, Ronald D., Beechem, Thomas E., Shaffer, Ryan A., Clevenger, Jascinda, Patrizi, Gary A., Klem, John F., Tauke-Pedretti, Anna, and Nordquist, Christopher D.. Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated InGaP/GaAs HBTs. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1109/TCPMT.2016.2541615.
Choi, Sukwon, Peake, Gregory M., Keeler, Gordon A., Geib, Kent M., Briggs, Ronald D., Beechem, Thomas E., Shaffer, Ryan A., Clevenger, Jascinda, Patrizi, Gary A., Klem, John F., Tauke-Pedretti, Anna, & Nordquist, Christopher D.. Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated InGaP/GaAs HBTs. United States. doi:10.1109/TCPMT.2016.2541615.
Choi, Sukwon, Peake, Gregory M., Keeler, Gordon A., Geib, Kent M., Briggs, Ronald D., Beechem, Thomas E., Shaffer, Ryan A., Clevenger, Jascinda, Patrizi, Gary A., Klem, John F., Tauke-Pedretti, Anna, and Nordquist, Christopher D.. Thu . "Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated InGaP/GaAs HBTs". United States. doi:10.1109/TCPMT.2016.2541615. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1249073.
@article{osti_1249073,
title = {Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated InGaP/GaAs HBTs},
author = {Choi, Sukwon and Peake, Gregory M. and Keeler, Gordon A. and Geib, Kent M. and Briggs, Ronald D. and Beechem, Thomas E. and Shaffer, Ryan A. and Clevenger, Jascinda and Patrizi, Gary A. and Klem, John F. and Tauke-Pedretti, Anna and Nordquist, Christopher D.},
abstractNote = {Flip-chip heterogeneously integrated n-p-n InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with integrated thermal management on wide-bandgap AlN substrates followed by GaAs substrate removal are demonstrated. Without thermal management, substrate removal after integration significantly aggravates self-heating effects, causing poor I–V characteristics due to excessive device self-heating. An electrothermal codesign scheme is demonstrated that involves simulation (design), thermal characterization, fabrication, and evaluation. Thermoreflectance thermal imaging, electrical-temperature sensitive parameter-based thermometry, and infrared thermography were utilized to assess the junction temperature rise in HBTs under diverse configurations. In order to reduce the thermal resistance of integrated devices, passive cooling schemes assisted by structural modification, i.e., positioning indium bump heat sinks between the devices and the carrier, were employed. By implementing thermal heat sinks in close proximity to the active region of flip-chip integrated HBTs, the junction-to-baseplate thermal resistance was reduced over a factor of two, as revealed by junction temperature measurements and improvement of electrical performance. In conclusion, the suggested heterogeneous integration method accounts for not only electrical but also thermal requirements providing insight into realization of advanced and robust III–V/Si heterogeneously integrated electronics.},
doi = {10.1109/TCPMT.2016.2541615},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology},
number = 99,
volume = PP,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Apr 21 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Apr 21 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
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