skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods

Abstract

The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1248823
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-15-25074-02
Journal ID: ISSN 1618-2642; PII: 9043
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 408; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1618-2642
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Brown, Kathryn E., Greenfield, Margo T., McGrane, Shawn D., and Moore, David S. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1007/s00216-015-9043-1.
Brown, Kathryn E., Greenfield, Margo T., McGrane, Shawn D., & Moore, David S. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods. United States. doi:10.1007/s00216-015-9043-1.
Brown, Kathryn E., Greenfield, Margo T., McGrane, Shawn D., and Moore, David S. 2015. "Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods". United States. doi:10.1007/s00216-015-9043-1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1248823.
@article{osti_1248823,
title = {Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods},
author = {Brown, Kathryn E. and Greenfield, Margo T. and McGrane, Shawn D. and Moore, David S.},
abstractNote = {The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.},
doi = {10.1007/s00216-015-9043-1},
journal = {Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
number = 1,
volume = 408,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 9works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased substantially since the publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis (Moore and Goodpaster, Anal Bioanal Chem 395(2):245–246, 2009). We review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. The review consists of two parts. Moreover, Part I, reviews methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers,more » electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. Part II will review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.« less
  • A new track etch autoradiographic technique for quantitating boron-10 containing compounds used for neutron capture therapy is described. Instead of applying solutions of Cs2B12H11SH and its oxidation products directly to solid-state nuclear track detectors, diethylaminoethyl cellulose thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates are utilized as sample matrices. The plates are juxtaposed with Lexan polycarbonate detectors and irradiated in a beam of thermal neutrons. The detectors are then chemically etched, and the resultant tracks counted with an optoelectronic image analyzer. Sensitivity to boron-10 in solution reaches the 1 pg/microliter level, or 1 ppb. In heparinized blood samples, 100 pg boron-10/microliter are detected.more » This TLC matrix method has the advantage that sample plates can be reanalyzed under different reactor conditions to optimize detector response to the boron-10 carrier material. Track etch/TLC allows quantitation of the purity of boron neutron capture therapy compounds by utilizing the above method with TLC plates developed in solvent systems that resolve Cs2B12H11SH and its oxidative analogs. Detectors irradiated in juxtaposition to the thin layer chromatograms are chemically etched, and the tracks are counted in the sample lane from the origin of the plate to the solvent front. A graphic depiction of the number of tracks per field yields a quantitative analysis of compound purity.« less
  • Scanning cargo transported via aircraft ("air cargo") for explosive threats is a problem that, at present, lacks a comprehensive technical solution. While explosives detection in the baggage-scanning domain has a rich history that sheds light on potential solutions for air cargo, baggage scanning differs in several ways and thus one cannot look to the present array of technologies. Some contemporary solutions, like trace analysis, are not readily applied to cargo due to sampling challenges while the larger geometry of air cargo makes others less effective. This review article examines an array of interrogation techniques using photons and neutrons as incidentmore » particles. We first present a summary of the signatures and observables explosives provide and review how they have been exploited in baggage scanning. Following this is a description of the challenges posed by the air cargo application space. After considering interrogation sources, methods focused on transmission imaging, sub-surface examination and elemental characterization are described. It is our goal to shed light on the technical promise of each method while largely deferring questions that revolve around footprint, safety and conduct of operations. Our overarching intent is that a comprehensive understanding of potential techniques will foster development of a comprehensive solution.« less
  • Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM)more » and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.« less