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Title: Synchrotron-based analysis of chromium distributions in multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

Abstract

Chromium (Cr) can degrade silicon wafer-based solar cell efficiencies at concentrations as low as 10(10) cm(-3). In this contribution, we employ synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy to study chromium distributions in multicrystalline silicon in as-grown material and after phosphorous diffusion. We complement quantified precipitate size and spatial distribution with interstitial Cr concentration and minority carrier lifetime measurements to provide insight into chromium gettering kinetics and offer suggestions for minimizing the device impacts of chromium. We observe that Cr-rich precipitates in as-grown material are generally smaller than iron-rich precipitates and that Cri point defects account for only one-half of the total Cr in the as-grown material. This observation is consistent with previous hypotheses that Cr transport and CrSi2 growth are more strongly diffusion-limited during ingot cooling. We apply two phosphorous diffusion gettering profiles that both increase minority carrier lifetime by two orders of magnitude and reduce [Cr-i] by three orders of magnitude to approximate to 10(10) cm(-3). Some Cr-rich precipitates persist after both processes, and locally high [Cri] after the high-temperature process indicates that further optimization of the chromium gettering profile is possible. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); Department of Defense
OSTI Identifier:
1248234
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: 20; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Jensen, Mallory Ann, Hofstetter, Jasmin, Morishige, Ashley E., Coletti, Gianluca, Lai, Barry, Fenning, David P., and Buonassisi, Tonio. Synchrotron-based analysis of chromium distributions in multicrystalline silicon for solar cells. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4921619.
Jensen, Mallory Ann, Hofstetter, Jasmin, Morishige, Ashley E., Coletti, Gianluca, Lai, Barry, Fenning, David P., & Buonassisi, Tonio. Synchrotron-based analysis of chromium distributions in multicrystalline silicon for solar cells. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4921619.
Jensen, Mallory Ann, Hofstetter, Jasmin, Morishige, Ashley E., Coletti, Gianluca, Lai, Barry, Fenning, David P., and Buonassisi, Tonio. Mon . "Synchrotron-based analysis of chromium distributions in multicrystalline silicon for solar cells". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4921619.
@article{osti_1248234,
title = {Synchrotron-based analysis of chromium distributions in multicrystalline silicon for solar cells},
author = {Jensen, Mallory Ann and Hofstetter, Jasmin and Morishige, Ashley E. and Coletti, Gianluca and Lai, Barry and Fenning, David P. and Buonassisi, Tonio},
abstractNote = {Chromium (Cr) can degrade silicon wafer-based solar cell efficiencies at concentrations as low as 10(10) cm(-3). In this contribution, we employ synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy to study chromium distributions in multicrystalline silicon in as-grown material and after phosphorous diffusion. We complement quantified precipitate size and spatial distribution with interstitial Cr concentration and minority carrier lifetime measurements to provide insight into chromium gettering kinetics and offer suggestions for minimizing the device impacts of chromium. We observe that Cr-rich precipitates in as-grown material are generally smaller than iron-rich precipitates and that Cri point defects account for only one-half of the total Cr in the as-grown material. This observation is consistent with previous hypotheses that Cr transport and CrSi2 growth are more strongly diffusion-limited during ingot cooling. We apply two phosphorous diffusion gettering profiles that both increase minority carrier lifetime by two orders of magnitude and reduce [Cr-i] by three orders of magnitude to approximate to 10(10) cm(-3). Some Cr-rich precipitates persist after both processes, and locally high [Cri] after the high-temperature process indicates that further optimization of the chromium gettering profile is possible. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4921619},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
issn = {0003-6951},
number = 20,
volume = 106,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}