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Title: A climatology of tropospheric humidity inversions in five reanalyses

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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
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Atmospheric Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 153; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2016-09-04 19:33:06; Journal ID: ISSN 0169-8095
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Brunke, Michael A., Stegall, Steve T., and Zeng, Xubin. A climatology of tropospheric humidity inversions in five reanalyses. Netherlands: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.08.005.
Brunke, Michael A., Stegall, Steve T., & Zeng, Xubin. A climatology of tropospheric humidity inversions in five reanalyses. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.08.005.
Brunke, Michael A., Stegall, Steve T., and Zeng, Xubin. 2015. "A climatology of tropospheric humidity inversions in five reanalyses". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.08.005.
title = {A climatology of tropospheric humidity inversions in five reanalyses},
author = {Brunke, Michael A. and Stegall, Steve T. and Zeng, Xubin},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.08.005},
journal = {Atmospheric Research},
number = C,
volume = 153,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2015,
month = 2

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Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.08.005

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Cited by: 3works
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  • The annual cycle of surface-based inversions at nine Arctic weather stations is examined, based on a 20-year set of daily 1200 UT significant level radiosonde data. All stations are at or near the coast. Inversions in winter months are primarily the result of strongly negative net radiation at the surface, whereas in summer, inversions more commonly result from near-surface cooling of warm air masses. Inversion frequency is at a maximum in winter (generally >70% of days) when inversions range from {approximately}400 to {approximately}850 m in thickness. Inversion thickness and strength (temperature change across the inversion) are strongly related to surfacemore » temperature. Inversions may involve temperature changes of >30{degrees}C in <1 km, with gradients of >6{degrees}C 100 m{sup {minus}1} during periods of extreme warm air advection aloft. Midwinter inversions commonly persist for 2-4 days, but may remain undisturbed for several weeks, affecting lower tropospheric chemistry. 9 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.« less
  • A climatology of the vertical ozone distribution in the troposphere is obtained by balloon-borne Brewer-Mast sondes at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP), southern France (44 deg N, 6 deg E, 700 m above sea level), during the period 1984 to 1990. The tropospheric ozone seasonal variation is characterized by a large maximum in spring and summer. A comparison to other ozone sounding stations gives evidence for a meridional ozone gradient in the middle and upper troposphere in Western Europe, with larger ozone values at Uccle (51 deg N, 4 deg E) and Julich (50 deg N, 6 deg E)more » than at the OHP (44 deg N, 6 deg E). A statistical analysis of ozone concentrations together with potential vorticity (PV), a tracer of stratospheric air masses, shows a partial but significant correlation between both variables (r = 0.40, significance greater than 99.9%), implying a noticeable impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the ozone variability. Concerning the spring/summer maximum of tropospheric ozone, it is shown to be caused both by ozone transfer from the stratosphere and by in situ photochemical ozone production. A climatology of the ozone/potential vorticity ratio is established for the OHP and its altitude and seasonal dependence is given. Finally, it is shown that the interannual variability of potential vorticity can cause dynamically induced trends of the ozone concentrations, which have to be taken into account to determine accurately the relative part due to human activity.« less
  • TOVS satellite observations are used to evaluate the upper-tropospheric (400-200 mb) moisture distribution simulated by the GLA GCM in a 10-yr (1979-1988) integration produced for the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project, in which several models participated worldwide. The simulated moisture fields show remarkable success in duplicating the large-scale structure and seasonal features in the observations, but they show insufficient contrast between very dry and very moist regions. The simulation generally does well in northern summer (June-July-August) but worse in northern winter. This is consistent with deficiencies in the annual cycle of moist convection so that convective rain stays too close tomore » the equator in northern winter. The related misplacement of convective activity associated with the Asian monsoon produces discrepancies in the moisture over much of the Eastern Hemisphere. The simulation also shows a too weak moisture response to interannual fluctuations in the sea surface temperature, even for the large El Nino episode of 1983. These results indicate that deficiencies in modeling oceanic convection may be in part responsible for errors in the simulated upper-tropospheric moisture patterns. 27 refs., 7 figs.« less
  • Here 21 years of radiosonde observations from stations in the Western Hemisphere north of the equator were analyzed for trends in tropospheric water vapor. Mean fields of precipitable water and relative humidity at several levels are shown. Annual trends of surface-500 mb precipitable water were generally increasing over this region. When trends were expressed as a percentage of the climatological mean at except over northeastern Canada decade. Trends in the each station, the trends south of {approximately}45{degrees}N represent a linear rate of increase of 3%-7% upper portion of this layer, 700-500 mb, were as large or larger than those ofmore » the middle (850-700 mb) or lower layer and were consistent in sign. Annual trends in dewpoint generally agree in sign with trends in temperature. However, the dewpoint trends tended to be larger than those of temperature. This was consistent with the annual increases found in relative humidity over this period. Relative humidity increased except in Canada. Alaska, and a few stations in western mountainous areas. Largest percentage increases of relative humidity were in the Tropics. Seasonal trends of precipitable water varied spatially more than the annual trends and fewer were statistically significant. More stations had significant trends in summer than in other seasons and these were located over the central and eastern United States and the Tropics. Spring trends were largest over the western United States, while the largest winter trends were along the Gulf Coast. The one area where significant water vapor increases were found in all four seasons was the Caribbean. 31 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • The effect on the modeled chemical climatology of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere of including a limited set of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a two-dimensional (2-D) zonal average model is presented. Recent measurements of nitrogenated and oxygenated hydrocarbons in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere have revealed the possibility of significant perturbation of this region. A zonally averaged 2-D chemical transport model enhanced to represent tropospheric processes was used to explore the extent of this perturbation on global and regional spatial scales and on seasonal and annual average timescales. Acetone was shown to cause a significant increase in the HO{submore » x} budgets of the upper troposphere in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere during the winter and early spring months, with acetone photolysis providing the most significant source of HO{sub x} radicals. The tropical upper troposphere has a uniform increase in HO{sub x} of up to 20{percent} throughout the year because of acetone photolysis. Including the hydrocarbons caused a net increase in ozone of 5 ppbv in the lower and middle troposphere and 5{endash}10 ppbv in the upper troposphere for global and annual averages. The effect of including the hydrocarbons on the calculated model ozone response for the case of doubled surface mixing ratios of atmospheric CH{sub 4} is also discussed. It is shown that including hydrocarbons in the model has a significant effect on the modeled ozone response to the methane increase. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union« less