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Title: Hydraulic design and optimization of a modular pump-turbine runner

Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy Conversion and Management
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 93; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2016-09-04 20:11:54; Journal ID: ISSN 0196-8904
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom

Citation Formats

Schleicher, W. C., and Oztekin, A.. Hydraulic design and optimization of a modular pump-turbine runner. United Kingdom: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2015.01.037.
Schleicher, W. C., & Oztekin, A.. Hydraulic design and optimization of a modular pump-turbine runner. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2015.01.037.
Schleicher, W. C., and Oztekin, A.. 2015. "Hydraulic design and optimization of a modular pump-turbine runner". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2015.01.037.
title = {Hydraulic design and optimization of a modular pump-turbine runner},
author = {Schleicher, W. C. and Oztekin, A.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.enconman.2015.01.037},
journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
number = C,
volume = 93,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = 2015,
month = 3

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.01.037

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • When a designer's ideas for the design or rehabilitation of a hydraulic turbine are tested before the actual machine is manufactured, operating characteristics can be improved. A variety of techniques exist to perform this preliminary design testing. In recent years, great progress has been made in the area of numerical simulation of physical phenomena. Sulzer Escher Wyss has been successfully using the computer method of numerical flow simulation to test designers' ideas. The method calculates the fluid flow in a hydraulic turbomachine, effectively simulating the hydraulic performance of a turbine before it is manufactured. The authors have used flow analysismore » as a theoretical tool -- a numerical test stand -- to aid in the first cut of turbomachinery design and rehabilitation. This way, only the fine tuning must be made in physical tests. This approach provides a fast and cost-effective layout procedure for machine components. However, the reliability of such a numerical test greatly depends on the quality of the method used, as well as on its proper use in terms of correct boundary conditions and accurate interpretation of the results. To aid in interpretation of the data from the flow analysis, the authors have developed a procedure to compress data from the flow calculations and present them in the form of sophisticated computer graphics. In this way, the design engineer can visualize the main relationships, which will aid him or her in making sound decisions regarding the turbine layout procedure. Ultimately, the method has helped optimize the design and rehabilitation of hydraulic machines, while reducing overall time and expense.« less
  • A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with pseudo-compressibility, an implicit formulation of finite difference, and a {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model has been developed for the Francis hydraulic runner. The viscous flow in the rotating field can be simulated well in the design flow operating condition as well as in the off-design conditions in which a strong vortex occurs due to the separation near the leading edge. Because the code employs an implicit algorithm and a wall function near the wall, it does not require a large CPU time. It can therefore be used on a small computer such as the desk-top workstation,more » and is available for use as a design tool. The same kind of algorithm that is used for compressible flows has been found to be appropriate for the simulation of complex incompressible flows in the field of turbomachinery.« less
  • Validation of a three-dimensional computational algorithm for viscous flow analysis has been conducted for two types of Francis turbine runner geometry, on low head and one high head, using experimental measurement. Assessment has been made for both qualitative features of flow behavior, as well as quantitative distribution of blade pressure and head loss. The influence of the grid size on the accuracy of the numerical solution is also discussed. Effort has been made to address some of the design issues, and to demonstrate that the present computational algorithm can make useful contributions to help improve the current design practices.
  • The turbine technology for low head application in the micro hydro range has been vastly neglected despite niche available in scattered regions of valley flows as well as in wastewater canals and other energy recovery schemes, where the available head does not exceed 2 meters. The goal of this study is to develop hydraulically optimized propeller turbines for the micro hydro range with a particular focus on ease of manufacture. This paper presents a wide range of geometrical optimization steps carried out on a propeller runner, whose blades have been designed using the free vortex theory, and operating with amore » gross head from 1.5 to 2 m and discharge of approximately 75 l/s. It further illustrates 3 stages of geometrical modifications carried out on the runner with an objective of optimizing the runner performance. These modifications comprised of changes to the tip angles (both at the runner inlet and exit) as well as the hub angles (at the runner inlet) of the runner blades. The paper also presents an interesting theoretical methodology to analyze the effects of each optimization stage. This method looks at the relative changes to shaft power and discharge at constant head and speed and gives wonderful insight as to how the internal parameters like Euler shaft work and runner hydraulic losses are behaving with respect to each optimization stage. It was found that the performance of the runner was very sensitive to changes to exit tip angle. At two levels of modification, the discharge increased in the range of 15-30%, while shaft power increased in the range of 12-45%, thus influencing the efficiency characteristics. The results of the runner inlet tip modification were very interesting in that a very significant rise of turbine efficiency was recorded from 55% to 74% at the best efficiency point, which was caused by a reduced discharge consumption as well as a higher power generation. It was also found that the optimization study on a propeller runner has reasonably validated the estimates of the free vortex theory despite small deviations. The final runner configuration demonstrated a maximum efficiency of 74% ({+-}1.8%), which is very encouraging from the perspectives of micro hydro application. The paper concludes with recommendations of a series of optimization steps to increase the efficiency of the runner. It also recommends the attempt of Computational Fluid Dynamics both as a validation and optimization tool for future research on propeller runners. (author)« less