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Title: Shale Poromechanics Hydraulic Fracturing and Multiscale Characterization.


Abstract not provided.

; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Secretary of Energy (S)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: Proposed for presentation at the 2015 Korea-U.S. Shale Gas Technology Cooperation Symposium held March 17, 2015 in Seoul, South Korea.
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Dewers, Thomas, Yoon, Hongkyu, Heath, Jason E., and Lee, Moo Y. Shale Poromechanics Hydraulic Fracturing and Multiscale Characterization.. United States: N. p., 2015. Web.
Dewers, Thomas, Yoon, Hongkyu, Heath, Jason E., & Lee, Moo Y. Shale Poromechanics Hydraulic Fracturing and Multiscale Characterization.. United States.
Dewers, Thomas, Yoon, Hongkyu, Heath, Jason E., and Lee, Moo Y. 2015. "Shale Poromechanics Hydraulic Fracturing and Multiscale Characterization.". United States. doi:.
title = {Shale Poromechanics Hydraulic Fracturing and Multiscale Characterization.},
author = {Dewers, Thomas and Yoon, Hongkyu and Heath, Jason E. and Lee, Moo Y.},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 3

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  • Fractured reservoirs in the generally siliceous Monterey shale of the Santa Maria area represent an anomalous lithology and type of fracturing. Some, perhaps all, are not fractured chert but parts of the Monterey embrittled by dolomitization. Reservoir fractures, unlike ubiquitous Monterey fractures, are mostly abundant, disordered, open extension fractures that commonly produce epigenetic, dolomitic breccias. These dolomite-cemented breccias commonly contain open voids, many of which are 15 cm across or larger. Breccias locally have an exploded appearance and contain some matched fragments separated by vein-like or dike-like matrix, which apparently was an injected slurry of water and oil containing fragmentsmore » of dolomite and dolomitic Monterey shale.« less
  • Clastic sediments, which are fine-grained or clayey, are capable of retaining fluids at pressures considerably greater than hydrostatic. A numeric model is developed which considers simultaneously the effects of compaction disequilibrium and aquathermal pressuring. Simulations were conducted for a variety of heat flux, permeability, stratigraphic, and sedimentation conditions. While compaction disequilibrium itself explains the general pressures in Gulf Coast sections, aquathermal pressuring can lead to fluid pressures greater than lithostatic. Fluid release by hydraulic fracturing must then occur. This combination of processes provides an explanation for the observed variations in shale bulk density, excess pressure, and thermal gradient. A Mohrmore » failure diagram provides a means of determining when fracturing is initiated and the orientation of the fractures.« less
  • The Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP) is investigating optimum methods and supporting rationale for stimulating gas production from Devonian shale. Innovative hydraulic fracturing techniques such as foam, dendritic, and cyrogenic fracturing are being field tested to develop commercial technology for transfer to the oil and gas industry. The supplementary model studies presented provide a rational basis for stimulation treatment design and fracture geometry prediction. This work summarizes results from a developed structural, fracture mechanics, and fluid flow model with the influence of in situ stress and shale bi-material properties. Selected comparisons with the models investigated are presented along with simulationmore » results for a foam fracture experiment. In addition, rationale for dendritic fracturing experiments is sought by investigating the spalling zone and stress intensities associated with branched cracks. Supporting numeric results are given also. 26 references.« less
  • To demonstrate within the Appalachian Basin the use of liquid carbon dioxide as a medium for hydraulically fracturing the Devonian Shale, while transporting sand as a proppant. The project scope includes candidate wells in up to five states, Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia; To compare and rank the gas production responses from wells treated with liquid CO{sub 2} with other types of treatments (shooting, water based, nitrogen, etc.). These demonstrations will involve two phases: Phase I - Up to fifteen wells in up to five target areas. (Aug 93) Phase II - Up to nine wells in upmore » to three target areas [seventeen months].« less
  • We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostlymore » filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow-geomechanical simulator and are transformed via a rock-physics model into electrical conductivity models. It is shown that anomalous conductivity distribution in the resulting models is closely related to injected water saturation, but not closely related to newly created unsaturated fractures. Our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that the crosswell EM method can be highly sensitive to conductivity changes that directly indicate the migration pathways of the injected fluid. Accordingly, the EM method can serve as an effective monitoring tool for distribution of injected fluids (i.e., migration pathways) during hydraulic fracturing operations« less