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Title: Nitrous oxide emissions during establishment of eight alternative cellulosic bioenergy cropping systems in the North Central United States

Abstract

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils are a key sustainability metric of cropping systems. During crop establishment, disruptive land-use change is known to be a critical, but under reported period, for determining GHG emissions. We measured soil N2O emissions and potential environmental drivers of these fluxes from a three-year establishment-phase bioenergy cropping systems experiment replicated in southcentral Wisconsin (ARL) and southwestern Michigan (KBS). Cropping systems treatments were annual monocultures (continuous corn, corn–soybean–canola rotation), perennial monocultures (switchgrass, miscanthus, and poplar), and perennial polycultures (native grass mixture, early successional community, and restored prairie) all grown using best management practices specific to the system. Cumulative three-year N2O emissions from annuals were 142% higher than from perennials, with fertilized perennials 190% higher than unfertilized perennials. Emissions ranged from 3.1 to 19.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for the annuals with continuous corn > corn–soybean–canola rotation and 1.1 to 6.3 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for perennials. Nitrous oxide peak fluxes typically were associated with precipitation events that closely followed fertilization. Bayesian modeling of N2O fluxes based on measured environmental factors explained 33% of variability across all systems. Models trained on single systems performed well in most monocultures (e.g., R2 = 0.52 for poplar) but notably worsemore » in polycultures (e.g., R2 = 0.17 for early successional, R2 = 0.06 for restored prairie), indicating that simulation models that include N2O emissions should be parameterized specific to particular plant communities. These results indicate that perennial bioenergy crops in their establishment phase emit less N2O than annual crops, especially when not fertilized. These findings should be considered further alongside yield and other metrics contributing to important ecosystem services.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) and Dept. of Agronomy
  2. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), W.K. Kellogg Biological Station and Dept. of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1246697
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1295952; OSTI ID: 1438264
Grant/Contract Number:  
FC02-07ER64494; AC05-76RL01830; AC05‐76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy Journal Volume: 8 Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1757-1693
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; Bayesian model averaging; cellulosic biofuels; corn; greenhouse gas; miscanthus; poplar; restored prairie; switchgrass

Citation Formats

Oates, Lawrence G., Duncan, David S., Gelfand, Ilya, Millar, Neville, Robertson, G. Philip, and Jackson, Randall D.. Nitrous oxide emissions during establishment of eight alternative cellulosic bioenergy cropping systems in the North Central United States. United Kingdom: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1111/gcbb.12268.
Oates, Lawrence G., Duncan, David S., Gelfand, Ilya, Millar, Neville, Robertson, G. Philip, & Jackson, Randall D.. Nitrous oxide emissions during establishment of eight alternative cellulosic bioenergy cropping systems in the North Central United States. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12268
Oates, Lawrence G., Duncan, David S., Gelfand, Ilya, Millar, Neville, Robertson, G. Philip, and Jackson, Randall D.. 2015. "Nitrous oxide emissions during establishment of eight alternative cellulosic bioenergy cropping systems in the North Central United States". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12268.
@article{osti_1246697,
title = {Nitrous oxide emissions during establishment of eight alternative cellulosic bioenergy cropping systems in the North Central United States},
author = {Oates, Lawrence G. and Duncan, David S. and Gelfand, Ilya and Millar, Neville and Robertson, G. Philip and Jackson, Randall D.},
abstractNote = {Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils are a key sustainability metric of cropping systems. During crop establishment, disruptive land-use change is known to be a critical, but under reported period, for determining GHG emissions. We measured soil N2O emissions and potential environmental drivers of these fluxes from a three-year establishment-phase bioenergy cropping systems experiment replicated in southcentral Wisconsin (ARL) and southwestern Michigan (KBS). Cropping systems treatments were annual monocultures (continuous corn, corn–soybean–canola rotation), perennial monocultures (switchgrass, miscanthus, and poplar), and perennial polycultures (native grass mixture, early successional community, and restored prairie) all grown using best management practices specific to the system. Cumulative three-year N2O emissions from annuals were 142% higher than from perennials, with fertilized perennials 190% higher than unfertilized perennials. Emissions ranged from 3.1 to 19.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for the annuals with continuous corn > corn–soybean–canola rotation and 1.1 to 6.3 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for perennials. Nitrous oxide peak fluxes typically were associated with precipitation events that closely followed fertilization. Bayesian modeling of N2O fluxes based on measured environmental factors explained 33% of variability across all systems. Models trained on single systems performed well in most monocultures (e.g., R2 = 0.52 for poplar) but notably worse in polycultures (e.g., R2 = 0.17 for early successional, R2 = 0.06 for restored prairie), indicating that simulation models that include N2O emissions should be parameterized specific to particular plant communities. These results indicate that perennial bioenergy crops in their establishment phase emit less N2O than annual crops, especially when not fertilized. These findings should be considered further alongside yield and other metrics contributing to important ecosystem services.},
doi = {10.1111/gcbb.12268},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1246697}, journal = {Global Change Biology. Bioenergy},
issn = {1757-1693},
number = 3,
volume = 8,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12268

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 17 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Cumulative 2009–2011 N2O fluxes from 8 bioenergy cropping systems grown at Arlington Agricultural Research Station, WI (ARL) and Kellogg Biological Station, MI (KBS). Values presented are geometric means with $$n$$ = 5 at ARL and $$n$$ = 4 at KBS. Phases of a corn–soybean–canola rotation are separated bymore » the contribution of each specific rotation phase in ascending chronological order; analysis was conducted on the summed fluxes. Bars sharing a letter can be grouped during stepwise factor level collapse without significantly reducing the explanatory power of the model ($$P$$ > 0.05). Miscanthus bars and letters correspond to 2010–2011 fluxes; for KBS, the dotted line and corresponding letter show the contribution of 2009 flux.« less

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Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.