skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Transmission electron microscopy characterization of Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO™ oxide layers

; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Nuclear Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 456; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2016-09-14 19:58:36; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-3115
Country of Publication:

Citation Formats

de Gabory, Benoit, Motta, Arthur T., and Wang, Ke. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO™ oxide layers. Netherlands: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.09.073.
de Gabory, Benoit, Motta, Arthur T., & Wang, Ke. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO™ oxide layers. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.09.073.
de Gabory, Benoit, Motta, Arthur T., and Wang, Ke. 2015. "Transmission electron microscopy characterization of Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO™ oxide layers". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.09.073.
title = {Transmission electron microscopy characterization of Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO™ oxide layers},
author = {de Gabory, Benoit and Motta, Arthur T. and Wang, Ke},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.09.073},
journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
number = C,
volume = 456,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2015,
month = 1

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.09.073

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 12works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, whichmore » essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.« less
  • Nickel-base alloys of nominal composition Ni-25 Wt.% Cr-(0-0.6 Wt.%) RE (RE=Y, La, and Ce) were prepared by conventional arc-melting Ni, Cr, and Y metal. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized by using electron diffraction and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) to determine the structure, morphology, and distribution of second-phase particles. Selected alloys were oxidized at 900{degrees}C and 1000{degrees}C in 1-atm air, and the resultant oxide scales were characterized using the same analytical techniques. The experimentally determined electron-diffraction data were compared with a JCPDF-EDD database, and several compounds were matched. The observed phases were RE oxysulfide, cerium orthochromite-CeCrO{sub 3}, yttria-Y{submore » 2}O{sub 3}, yttrium orthochromite-YCrO{sub 3}, and Ni{sub 5}Y. The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the current level of knowledge on the role of sulfur in the reactive-element effect. The ability of the reactive elements to getter sulfur is examined with respect to the thermodynamic stability of the oxysulfide species.« less
  • MgO crystals doped with Co, Cu, and V were thermochemically reduced at high temperatures. Changes in coloration were observed in all these crystals due to broad optical extinction bands in the visible region. These bands are impurity related. Analytical transmission-electron-microscopy techniques indicated the presence of metallic precipitates consisting of Co in the Co-doped sample, Cu with some precipitates of Fe in the Cu-doped sample, and a V-Fe-Cr alloy in the V-doped sample. Microdiffraction patterns indicated that the Co precipitates possessed the fcc (a/sub 0/ = 3.54 A) crystal structure and V-Fe-Cr alloy precipitates showed a bcc (a/sub 0/ = 2.89more » A) crystal structure.« less
  • InN thin films have been grown epitaxially on GaN-buffered sapphire substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy at 500 deg. C. A high level of oxygen contamination in the growth chamber led to formation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitates in the films. These precipitates were characterized in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The concentration of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was estimated to be less than 0.07 vol % in the present samples of oxygen content {approx}0.5 at. %. Cross-sectional TEM investigations revealed that the precipitates adopt a preferred crystallographic orientation within the InN matrix, and show a characteristic diameter of {approx}5 nm withmore » average distance of {approx}500 nm. These observations suggest the effective solubility of O in InN could be below 1 at. % at 500 deg. C.« less