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Title: Effects of Lewis acidity of metal oxide promoters on the activity and selectivity of Co-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis catalysts

Abstract

Metal oxides of Ce, Gd, La, Mn, and Zr were investigated as promoters for improving the activity and selectivity of Co-based FTS catalysts. The extent to which these promoters decrease the selectivity toward CH 4 and increase the selectivity toward C 5+ hydrocarbons was found to depend on both the loading and the composition of the oxide promoter. Elemental mapping by STEM–EDS revealed that the propensity for a given metal oxide to associate with Co affects the sensitivity of the product distribution to changes in promoter loading. For all promoters, a sufficiently high loading resulted in the product distributions becoming insensitive to further increases in promoter loading, very likely due to the formation of a half monolayer of promoter oxide over the Co surface. Simulations suggest that the fraction of Co active sites that are adjacent to the promoter moieties approaches unity at this degree of coverage. The oxidation state of the promoter metal cation under reaction conditions, determined by in situ XANES measurements, was used to calculate relative Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cation. A strong positive correlation was found between the C 5+ product selectivity and the Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cations, suggesting that themore » promotional effects are a consequence of Lewis acid–base interactions between the reaction intermediates and the promoter metal cations. Rate data obtained at different pressures were used to estimate the apparent rate coefficient and the CO adsorption constant appearing in the Langmuir–Hinshelwood expression that describes the CO consumption kinetics for both unpromoted and the metal oxide-promoted catalysts. Both parameters exhibited positive correlations with the promoter Lewis acidity. In conclusion, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the metal cations of the promoter act as Lewis acids that interact with the O atom of adsorbed CO to facilitate CO adsorption and dissociation.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1245876
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Catalysis; Journal Volume: 338; Journal Issue: C
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH

Citation Formats

Johnson, Gregory R., and Bell, Alexis T. Effects of Lewis acidity of metal oxide promoters on the activity and selectivity of Co-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis catalysts. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2016.03.022.
Johnson, Gregory R., & Bell, Alexis T. Effects of Lewis acidity of metal oxide promoters on the activity and selectivity of Co-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis catalysts. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2016.03.022.
Johnson, Gregory R., and Bell, Alexis T. Fri . "Effects of Lewis acidity of metal oxide promoters on the activity and selectivity of Co-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis catalysts". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2016.03.022.
@article{osti_1245876,
title = {Effects of Lewis acidity of metal oxide promoters on the activity and selectivity of Co-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis catalysts},
author = {Johnson, Gregory R. and Bell, Alexis T.},
abstractNote = {Metal oxides of Ce, Gd, La, Mn, and Zr were investigated as promoters for improving the activity and selectivity of Co-based FTS catalysts. The extent to which these promoters decrease the selectivity toward CH4 and increase the selectivity toward C5+ hydrocarbons was found to depend on both the loading and the composition of the oxide promoter. Elemental mapping by STEM–EDS revealed that the propensity for a given metal oxide to associate with Co affects the sensitivity of the product distribution to changes in promoter loading. For all promoters, a sufficiently high loading resulted in the product distributions becoming insensitive to further increases in promoter loading, very likely due to the formation of a half monolayer of promoter oxide over the Co surface. Simulations suggest that the fraction of Co active sites that are adjacent to the promoter moieties approaches unity at this degree of coverage. The oxidation state of the promoter metal cation under reaction conditions, determined by in situ XANES measurements, was used to calculate relative Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cation. A strong positive correlation was found between the C5+ product selectivity and the Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cations, suggesting that the promotional effects are a consequence of Lewis acid–base interactions between the reaction intermediates and the promoter metal cations. Rate data obtained at different pressures were used to estimate the apparent rate coefficient and the CO adsorption constant appearing in the Langmuir–Hinshelwood expression that describes the CO consumption kinetics for both unpromoted and the metal oxide-promoted catalysts. Both parameters exhibited positive correlations with the promoter Lewis acidity. In conclusion, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the metal cations of the promoter act as Lewis acids that interact with the O atom of adsorbed CO to facilitate CO adsorption and dissociation.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jcat.2016.03.022},
journal = {Journal of Catalysis},
number = C,
volume = 338,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 17 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Jun 17 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Metal oxides of Ce, Gd, La, Mn, and Zr were investigated as promoters for improving the activity and selectivity of Co-based FTS catalysts. The extent to which these promoters decrease the selectivity toward CH 4 and increase the selectivity toward C 5+ hydrocarbons was found to depend on both the loading and the composition of the oxide promoter. Elemental mapping by STEM-EDS revealed that the propensity for a given metal oxide to associate with Co affects the sensitivity of the product distribution to changes in promoter loading. For all promoters, a sufficiently high loading resulted in the product distributions becomingmore » insensitive to further increases in promoter loading, very likely due to the formation of a half monolayer of promoter oxide over the Co surface. Simulations suggest that the fraction of Co active sites that are adjacent to the promoter moieties approaches unity at this degree of coverage. The oxidation state of the promoter metal cation under reaction conditions, determined by in situ XANES measurements, was used to calculate relative Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cation. We found a strong positive correlation between the C 5+ product selectivity and the Lewis acidity of the promoter metal cations, suggesting that the promotional effects are a consequence of Lewis acid-base interactions between the reaction intermediates and the promoter metal cations. Rate data obtained at different pressures were used to estimate the apparent rate coefficient and the CO adsorption constant appearing in the Langmuir-Hinshelwood expression that describes the CO consumption kinetics for both unpromoted and the metal oxide-promoted catalysts. Both parameters exhibited positive correlations with the promoter Lewis acidity. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the metal cations of the promoter act as Lewis acids that interact with the O atom of adsorbed CO to facilitate CO adsorption and dissociation.« less
  • The effects of Zr promotion on the structure and performance of Co-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were investigated. Inclusion of Zr in the catalysts was found to increase the FTS turnover frequency and the selectivity to C 5+ hydrocarbons and to decrease the selectivity to methane under most operating conditions. These improvements to the catalytic performance are a function of Zr loading up to an atomic ratio of Zr/Co = 1.0, above which the product selectivity is insensitive to higher concentrations of the promoter. Characterization of the Co nanoparticles by different methods demonstrated that the optimal Zr loading corresponds tomore » half monolayer coverage of the Co surface by the promoter. Measurements of the rate of FTS at different pressures and temperatures established that the kinetics data for both the Zr-promoted and unpromoted catalysts are described by a two-parameter Langmuir-Hinshelwood expression. The parameters used to fit this rate law to the experimental data indicate that the apparent rate coefficient and the CO adsorption constant for the Zr-promoted catalysts are higher than those for the unpromoted catalyst. Elemental mapping by means of STEM-EDS provided evidence that Zr is highly dispersed over the catalyst surface and has limited preference for association with the Co nanoparticles. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the absence of mixing between the Zr and Co in the nanoparticles. Here, these results suggest that Zr exists as a partial layer of ZrO 2 on the surface of the Co metal nanoparticles. Accordingly, it is proposed that Zr promotion effects originate from sites of enhanced activity at the interface between Co and ZrO 2. The possibility that ZrO 2 acts as a Lewis acid to assist in CO dissociation as well as to increase the ratio of CO to H adsorbed on the catalyst surface is discussed.« less