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Title: Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

Abstract

Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1242382
Grant/Contract Number:
NE0008280
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
mechanical engineering; metals and alloys

Citation Formats

Mukherjee, T., Zuback, J. S., De, A., and DebRoy, T. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/srep19717.
Mukherjee, T., Zuback, J. S., De, A., & DebRoy, T. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing. United States. doi:10.1038/srep19717.
Mukherjee, T., Zuback, J. S., De, A., and DebRoy, T. Fri . "Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing". United States. doi:10.1038/srep19717. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1242382.
@article{osti_1242382,
title = {Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing},
author = {Mukherjee, T. and Zuback, J. S. and De, A. and DebRoy, T.},
abstractNote = {Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.},
doi = {10.1038/srep19717},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 22 00:00:00 EST 2016},
month = {Fri Jan 22 00:00:00 EST 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 22works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potentials in enabling superior engineering functionality, streamlining supply chains, and reducing life cycle impacts compared to conventional manufacturing (CM). This study estimates the net changes in supply-chain lead time, life cycle primary energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and life cycle costs (LCC) associated with AM technologies for the case of injection molding, to shed light on the environmental and economic advantages of a shift from international or onshore CM to AM in the United States. A systems modeling framework is developed, with integrations of lead-time analysis, life cycle inventory analysis, LCC model, and scenariosmore » considering design differences, supply-chain options, productions, maintenance, and AM technological developments. AM yields a reduction potential of 3% to 5% primary energy, 4% to 7% GHG emissions, 12% to 60% lead time, and 15% to 35% cost over 1 million cycles of the injection molding production depending on the AM technology advancement in future. The economic advantages indicate the significant role of AM technology in raising global manufacturing competitiveness of local producers, while the relatively small environmental benefits highlight the necessity of considering trade-offs and balance techniques between environmental and economic performances when AM is adopted in the tooling industry. The results also help pinpoint the technological innovations in AM that could lead to broader benefits in future.« less
    Cited by 2
  • Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potentials in enabling superior engineering functionality, streamlining supply chains, and reducing life cycle impacts compared to conventional manufacturing (CM). This study estimates the net changes in supply-chain lead time, life cycle primary energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and life cycle costs (LCC) associated with AM technologies for the case of injection molding, to shed light on the environmental and economic advantages of a shift from international or onshore CM to AM in the United States. A systems modeling framework is developed, with integrations of lead-time analysis, life cycle inventory analysis, LCC model, and scenariosmore » considering design differences, supply-chain options, productions, maintenance, and AM technological developments. AM yields a reduction potential of 3% to 5% primary energy, 4% to 7% GHG emissions, 12% to 60% lead time, and 15% to 35% cost over 1 million cycles of the injection molding production depending on the AM technology advancement in future. The economic advantages indicate the significant role of AM technology in raising global manufacturing competitiveness of local producers, while the relatively small environmental benefits highlight the necessity of considering trade-offs and balance techniques between environmental and economic performances when AM is adopted in the tooling industry. The results also help pinpoint the technological innovations in AM that could lead to broader benefits in future.« less
  • Magnetically isotropic bonded magnets with a high loading fraction of 70 vol.% Nd-Fe-B are fabricated via an extrusion-based additive manufacturing, or 3D printing system that enables rapid production of large parts. The density of the printed magnet is ~5.2 g/cm 3. The room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 8.9 kOe (708.2 kA/m), remanence Br = 5.8 kG (0.58 T), and energy product (BH)max = 7.3 MGOe (58.1 kJ/m 3). The as-printed magnets are then coated with two types of polymers, both of which improve the thermal stability as revealed by flux aging loss measurements. Tensile tests performedmore » at 25 °C and 100 °C show that the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) increases with increasing loading fraction of the magnet powder, and decreases with increasing temperature. AC magnetic susceptibility and resistivity measurements show that the 3D printed Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets exhibit extremely low eddy current loss and high resistivity. Lastly, we demonstrate the performance of the 3D printed magnets in a DC motor configuration via back electromotive force measurements.« less
  • Additive manufacturing (AM), or three-dimensional (3D) printing as it is more commonly known, is defined as the process of joining materials and creating objects by melting, sintering, or fusing material in a layer-by-layer fashion coordinated via 3D model data.1 Subtractive, or traditional, manufacturing methodologies often consist of machining/removing material—like a sculptor—or forming material through the application of pressure—like a potter. Conversely, in an AM process, material is added in individual volume elements and built up in a way similar to interlocking building blocks, but with volume elements that are typically the size of a grain of sand. The additive processmore » often involves less waste when compared to subtractive techniques because material is only added when and where it is needed. Adjustments to the final structure are relatively straightforward and can be simply achieved by adjusting the 3D computer model. This makes the technology much more flexible than traditional, subtractive techniques where new tooling or forming equipment is usually needed to accommodate design changes. Also, the AM processes are beneficial because they permit the fabrication of unique geometries, such as miniaturized metal lattice structures, that cannot be achieved using traditional techniques. An example of a metal lattice structure is the Eiffel Tower with its Figure 1. Schematic showing required linkages between experimental and modeling thrusts in order to achieve science-based qualification. Arrows showing linkages are color-coded according to the funded projects listed. geometric, interconnecting struts that reduce the overall weight of the tower while maintaining strength. In AM, the size of the struts can be made smaller than the diameter of a human hair, which further reduces weight while maintaining strength—a combination of properties that can benefit many applications.« less