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Title: Microseismicity During the 2005 Habanero EGS Stimulation in the Cooper Basin of South Australia

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Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
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Conference: Presented at: STANFORD GEOTHERMAL WORKSHOP, Stanford, CA, United States, Jan 26 - Jan 28, 2015
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Templeton, D C, and Harris, D B. Microseismicity During the 2005 Habanero EGS Stimulation in the Cooper Basin of South Australia. United States: N. p., 2015. Web.
Templeton, D C, & Harris, D B. Microseismicity During the 2005 Habanero EGS Stimulation in the Cooper Basin of South Australia. United States.
Templeton, D C, and Harris, D B. 2015. "Microseismicity During the 2005 Habanero EGS Stimulation in the Cooper Basin of South Australia". United States. doi:.
title = {Microseismicity During the 2005 Habanero EGS Stimulation in the Cooper Basin of South Australia},
author = {Templeton, D C and Harris, D B},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 1

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  • Point-bar deposits occur ubiquitously within the lowest facies association of the Upper Permian Toolachee Formation (+500 ft thick). The association represents deposition in a moderate to high-sinuosity, mixed-load, fluvial channel system in which lateral bar deposits constitute major hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs. Bars may be simple or punctuated in their upward-fining, vertical facies transitions, but heterolithic lateral accretion surfaces of upper point bars may occasionally be preserved in cores. Detailed facies studies of Association 1 in 17 cored wells reveal that pebbly thalweg lags locally include chatoci bank-collapse conglomerates. These basal point-bar deposits fine upward into cross-bedded sandstones. Ripple bedding ismore » common in upper bar sequences. The bars are associated with a variety of abandonment fills, levees, and crevasse-splays, backswamp deposits, and autochthonous coals. Paleohydraulic studies of point bars in the Moomba field demonstrate an average bankfull depth of the Toolachee channels of 14 ft and bankfull width of 320 ft. Empirical relationships indicate a maximum meander loop diameter of 1650 ft with meander belt width at 3650 ft. These parameters allow an evaluation of reservoir geometry, storage potential, and permeability barriers. The latter, generated by clay-plug abandonment fills, can restrict fluid migration within the field and produce over-estimation of hydrocarbon reserves. Conversely, avulsive channel events may locally increase point-bar reservoir dimensions by partially, or totally, removing preexisting abandonment fills.« less
  • The sedimentology of the Permian Gidgealpa Group of the southern Cooper basin currently is being evaluated to ascertain the tectono-sedimentologic evolution of the basin and to determine the architecture of the clastic suite in order to generate exploration plays. The Merrimelia Formation of the Gidgealpa Group was examined regionally in 29 cored wells. The formation attains a maximum thickness of 300 m (1000 ft), and representative facies include glaciofluvial outwash, terrestrial and subaqueous diamictites, and glaciolacustrine, wave-affected, and ripple-laminated sandstones, with thick, monotonous mudrock sequences containing clay-dominant rhythmite horizons. The Tirrawarra Sandstone, analyzed in 32 cored wells, comprises four majormore » facies associations throughout its maximum 75 m (250 ft) thickness. These associations indicate a temporal and spatial evolution of a fluvioglacial to predominantly fluvial system. Initial deposition on low slope, outwash fans, where braided processes operated is indicated. This sedimentation style evolved into a low sinuosity, bedload-dominant, sandy braided system, with high width-to-depth ratio channels. Allocyclic control mechanisms are invoke for late Tirrawarra sedimentation as the facies reveal proximal-distal patterns and the fluvial style changes to a mixed-load channel system. The interfacing and evolutionary pattern of the deposystem indicates that additional reserves potential exists for reservoirs developed locally within the Merrimelia Formation.« less
  • The Epsilon and Toolachee Formations record a transition from lacustrine deltas to fluvial depositional systems in the southeastern part of the Cooper Basin. Gas reservoirs in these formations occur mainly in narrow (typically less than 2 mi [3.2 km] wide) belts of distributary- and fluvial-channel sandstones in structurally high areas in Dullingari field and neighboring areas. In a study by the Bureau of Economic Geology and Santos to document distribution of Epsilon and Toolachee lithotacies, we mapped multiple depositional axes and projected them into undeveloped areas in the field. We performed a high-resolution sequence-stratigraphic study, defining four operational Epsilon subunitsmore » bounded by lacustrine mudstones recording periods of delta-platform abandonment and subsidence. In contrast, six genetic Toolachee subunits are bounded by regionally extensive coal seams recording pervasive sediment-supply shutoff and peat-swamp development over broad areas. Epsilon lacustrine deltas prograded northwestward over a muddy substrate on a broad, shallow basin floor. Distributary-channel axes, defined by narrow, northwest-trending belts of upward-fining sandstones less than 20 ft (6 m) thick, are projected across the field area. However, the younger Toolachee Formation contains northeast-trending sandstones in structural troughs, suggesting tectonic control on deposition. Detailed lithofacies maps of these formations provide a framework for assessing potential development targets at Dullingari field.« less
  • The oil and gas-bearing Tirrawarra Sandstone lies in the basal section of the Cooper basin sequence, which is largely Permian in age. The sandstone is characteristically thick, but both interfingers with and conformable overlies glacio-lacustrine diamictites and varvites of the late Carboniferous-Early Permian Merrimeleia Formation. The Tirrawarra Sandstone has previously been interpreted as being deposited in a glacio-fluvial braided river environment. The sandstone produces high gas:oil-ratio oil at the Moorari field, from depths of 9,400 ft below sea level. Appraisal and development of the field has been hampered by the patchy distribution of reservoir quality sandstone. This study investigated themore » cause of reservoir quality variations. For seven cored wells, core facies analysis, core plug porosity/permeability, petrology, and wireline logs were all matched and compared. The results are as follows. (1) Facies states (grain size and bed form) largely control permeability distribution in the Tirrawarra Sandstone at the Moorari field, such that horizontally bedded medium-coarse sandstones are consistently more permeable than cross-bedded equivalents. (2) Diagenesis levels are high and include extensive silica cement and patchy kaolinite and siderite cements. However, diagenesis rarely operates independently of original depositional fabric. (3) An association between depositional environment and permeability is recognizable, with medial bars in particular providing better reservoir quality.« less
  • Pore geometry is a major control on hydraulic conductivity in a porous medium. Pore geometry may be defined in terms of pore and pore throat size, pore diameter, and pore shape (pore surface area, pore perimeter). Petrographic image analysis, and mercury injection data were employed to group fluvio-deltaic Tirrawarra Sandstone samples in the Moorari and Fly Lake fields into eight classes. The classes are separated according to the relative proportions of different kinds of porosity (microporosity, and primary and secondary macroporosity), size of pore spaces, size of pore throats, and pore diameter. The reservoir quality increases from class eight tomore » class one and the classes have a predictable relationship to sedimentary environment. Class one samples, associated with meander, aeolian or beach-barrier environments, have primary macroporosity with partial quartz cement. Pore throats mostly exceed 10 micron. Mean pore space area is about 6300 micron. Mean pore diameter and mean pore perimeter are respectively 66 and 275 micron. Class eight, on the other hand, associated with a braid-delta environment, is dominated by microporosity. Mean pore space area is about 436 micron. Mean pore diameter and mean pore perimeter are respectively 25 and 76 micron. In addition the pore-throat distribution shows poor sorting with a pore throat ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 micron.« less