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Title: Review of footnotes and annotations to the 1949–2013 tables of standard atomic weights and tables of isotopic compositions of the elements (IUPAC Technical Report)

Abstract

Abstract The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights uses annotations given in footnotes that are an integral part of the Tables of Standard Atomic Weights to alert users to the possibilities of quite extraordinary occurrences, as well as sources with abnormal atomic-weight values outside an otherwise acceptable range. The basic need for footnotes to the Standard Atomic Weights Table and equivalent annotations to the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements arises from the necessity to provide users with information that is relevant to one or more elements, but that cannot be provided using numerical data in columns. Any desire to increase additional information conveyed by annotations to these Tables is tempered by the need to preserve a compact format and a style that can alert users, who would not be inclined to consult either the last full element-by-element review or the full text of a current Standard Atomic Weights of the Elements report. Since 1989, the footnotes of the Tables of Standard Atomic Weights and the annotations in column 5 of the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements have been harmonized by use of three lowercase footnotes, “g”, “m”, and “r”, that signify geologically exceptionally specimens (“g”),more » modified isotopic compositions in material subjected to undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation (“m”), and the range in isotopic composition of normal terrestrial material prevents more precise atomic-weight value being given (“r”). As some elements are assigned intervals for their standard atomic-weight values (applies to 12 elements since 2009), footnotes “g” and “r” are no longer needed for these elements.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1240711
Report Number(s):
BNL-111886-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0033-4545; R&D Project: EST-003-NEFA; KB0301041
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Pure and Applied Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0033-4545
Publisher:
IUPAC
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; National Nuclear Data Center; normal material; mononuclide element; atomic weight variations; atomic weight intervals; Oklo natural reactor; stable isotope; undisclosed fractionation; artificial isotopic separation

Citation Formats

Coplen, Tyler B., and Holden, Norman E.. Review of footnotes and annotations to the 1949–2013 tables of standard atomic weights and tables of isotopic compositions of the elements (IUPAC Technical Report). United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1515/pac-2016-0203.
Coplen, Tyler B., & Holden, Norman E.. Review of footnotes and annotations to the 1949–2013 tables of standard atomic weights and tables of isotopic compositions of the elements (IUPAC Technical Report). United States. doi:10.1515/pac-2016-0203.
Coplen, Tyler B., and Holden, Norman E.. 2016. "Review of footnotes and annotations to the 1949–2013 tables of standard atomic weights and tables of isotopic compositions of the elements (IUPAC Technical Report)". United States. doi:10.1515/pac-2016-0203. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1240711.
@article{osti_1240711,
title = {Review of footnotes and annotations to the 1949–2013 tables of standard atomic weights and tables of isotopic compositions of the elements (IUPAC Technical Report)},
author = {Coplen, Tyler B. and Holden, Norman E.},
abstractNote = {Abstract The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights uses annotations given in footnotes that are an integral part of the Tables of Standard Atomic Weights to alert users to the possibilities of quite extraordinary occurrences, as well as sources with abnormal atomic-weight values outside an otherwise acceptable range. The basic need for footnotes to the Standard Atomic Weights Table and equivalent annotations to the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements arises from the necessity to provide users with information that is relevant to one or more elements, but that cannot be provided using numerical data in columns. Any desire to increase additional information conveyed by annotations to these Tables is tempered by the need to preserve a compact format and a style that can alert users, who would not be inclined to consult either the last full element-by-element review or the full text of a current Standard Atomic Weights of the Elements report. Since 1989, the footnotes of the Tables of Standard Atomic Weights and the annotations in column 5 of the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements have been harmonized by use of three lowercase footnotes, “g”, “m”, and “r”, that signify geologically exceptionally specimens (“g”), modified isotopic compositions in material subjected to undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation (“m”), and the range in isotopic composition of normal terrestrial material prevents more precise atomic-weight value being given (“r”). As some elements are assigned intervals for their standard atomic-weight values (applies to 12 elements since 2009), footnotes “g” and “r” are no longer needed for these elements.},
doi = {10.1515/pac-2016-0203},
journal = {Pure and Applied Chemistry},
number = 7,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 1
}

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  • The biennial review of atomic weight, A[sub r](E), determinations and other cognate data has resulted in changes for the standard atomic weight of indium from 114.82[+-]0.01 to 114.818[+-]0.003, for tungsten from 183.85[+-]0.03 to 183.84[+-]0.01 and for osmium from 190.2[+-]190.23[+-]0.03 due to new high precision measurements. Recent investigations on silicon and antimony confirmed the presently accepted A[sub r] values. The footnote [open quotes]g[close quotes] was added for carbon and potassium because it has come to the notice of the Commission that isotope abundance variations have been found in geological specimens in which these elements have an isotopic composition outside the limitsmore » for normal material. The value of 272 is recommended for the [sup 14]N/[sup 15]N ratio of N[sub 2] in air for the calculation of atom percent [sup 15]N from measured [sigma][sup 15]N values. Because many elements have a different isotopic composition in non-terrestrial materials, recent data on non-terrestrial material are included in this report for the information of the interested scientific community. 67 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.« less
  • Precise determinations of the isotopic compositions of molybdenum, tellurium, tin and tungsten were obtained utilizing an inductively coupled plasma source (ICP) magnetic sector mass spectrometer equipped with multiple collectors. The results of this study are comparable to those measured by conventional and negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS and NTIMS) and the values recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), but with improvement in precision by up to two orders of magnitude. The isotopic abundances and atomic weight for each element calculated from the data obtained in this study are also in excellent agreement with previouslymore » published values. The only disagreement between this study and IUPAC recommended values is for tellurium. However, with the exception of {sup 130}Te, the Te data are in good agreement with those reported in a recent study by De Laeter. The results of this study demonstrate the capability of this new instrument to produce precise and reproducible isotopic data for elements that are difficult to ionize and measure with TIMS. Furthermore, the greater precision of isotopic measurements possible with the ICP source multiple collector magnet sector mass spectrometer greatly enhances the prospects for research on the distribution and isotopic compositions of these elements in terrestrial and meteoritic materials.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • A large number of measurements describing the isotopic composition of the elements using a variety of analytical methods have been reported since the discovery of the first isotope in 1912. During the past several decades, however, mass spectrometric methods have been used, almost exclusively, to determine the isotopic composition, and thus the atomic weights, of the elements. This evaluated compilation reports the literature references for all complete mass spectrometric measurements published during the period 1920 through 1983. Also given are the isotopic compositions, the isotope ratios, the atomic weights calculated from the data, the appropriate nuclidic masses and an evaluationmore » of the errors of the measurements. For each polynuclidic element, a best measurement has been selected.« less